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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

insufficient information for a conclusion in the report by the previous Committee in 2008. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) reduces the risk of excessive weight gain in adults, including pregnant women. In addition to reducing the risk for breast and colon cancer, MVPA reduces the risk for cancer

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Richard R. Rosenkranz and David A. Dzewaltowski

Previous studies have demonstrated that parents may influence the physical activity (PA) levels of children. The present study sought to determine whether PA-related parenting behaviors were associated with the physical activity and relative weight of children, controlling for other covariates. A community sample of mothers (n = 193) of after-school-program attendees completed questionnaires assessing parental social support for PA, sedentary behavior, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Children (N = 193, 51% girls) were objectively assessed for height and weight via stadiometer and digital scale, and the data were converted to body mass index (BMI) percentile via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2010a) growth charts. Linear regression analysis revealed that maternal encouragement for child PA was positively related to both child PA and BMI percentile. However, mother-child shared physical activity was negatively related to child BMI percentile. Therefore, varying types of PA-related parenting behaviors may have differential relationships with child PA and relative weight.

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

Participation in a sport is widely considered a valuable form of physical activity, especially for children and adolescents. In addition, many think that sport participation translates to future physical activity. However, limited research has examined the ability of youth sport to significantly contribute to meeting daily physical activity guidelines (60 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity) and whether the physical activity behaviors of youth sport participants will translate into future, habitual activity in both the short and the long term. In this paper, available research on the role of youth sport in the promotion of physical activity is evaluated. Two major questions are used to frame the discussion: How much physical activity do youth sport participants attain during games and practices, and does sport participation during childhood and adolescence translate into habitual physical activity in adulthood? This is followed by ideas for future research and preliminary recommendations for best practices or policies.

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day ( Hallal et al., 2012 ). In an Irish context, the most recent 2016 Report Card on PA (a national document, containing all data on indicators related to children’s PA levels from Northern and Southern Ireland) awarded children and adolescents an overall

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Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin

.H. , Houts , R.M. , McRitchie , S.L. , & O’Brien , M. ( 2008 ). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years . Journal of the American Medical Association, 300 ( 3 ), 295 – 305 . PubMed ID: 18632544 doi:10.1001/jama.300.3.295 10.1001/jama.300.3.295 Nicholas , J.C. , Dimmock

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Marianne I. Clark and Holly Thorpe

possibilities of physical culture . Sport in Society, 17 ( 10 ), 1266 – 1289 . Song , M. , Dieckmann , N.F. , Stoyles , S. , Kim , Y. , & Lumeng , J.C. ( 2017 ). Associations between mother’s and children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in the family context

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

 al., 2011 ), to provide clear guidelines regarding the minimal amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) required to improve and maintain health. With the exception of the American College of Sports Medicine position stand ( Garber et al., 2011 ), which recommends that individuals achieve ≥7

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Gregory J. Welk

emphasis in the study was on estimating time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but we extended this work to also develop models to estimate time spent in sedentary behavior. The primary goals were to quantify the nature and direction of error in the 24-hPAR and to develop measurement

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Debra J. Rose

. Examples included whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior are independent or interrelated, whether replacing sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity also provides health benefits, and how much physical activity is really needed to improve health. As Powell

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Senlin Chen and Alex Garn

sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity for better health. Recognizing the need to address recreational and public health goals in and through physical education, Ennis endorsed the educational approach where “teachers place a balanced emphasis on skill performance and fitness goals while