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Chris Wagstaff, Rebecca Hings, Rebecca Larner and David Fletcher

recommended threshold for adequacy. Data Analysis To investigate whether the effect of organizational stressors on burnout varied in magnitude and nature as a function of resilience, we used simple moderation analysis ( Hayes, 2009 ). This enabled identification of statistical interactions between the

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Shuge Zhang, Stuart Beattie, Amanda Pitkethly and Chelsey Dempsey

moderation analyses without manually creating the product term for the interaction and provides statistics of the interaction term with the results of simple slope analysis to interpret any interactions ( Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003 ). To control for potential team effects, we followed Jaccard and

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Lawrence E. Armstrong

Recreational enthusiasts and athletes often are advised to abstain from consuming caffeinated beverages (CB). The dual purposes of this review are to (a) critique controlled investigations regarding the effects of caffeine on dehydration and exercise performance, and (b) ascertain whether abstaining from CB is scientifically and physiologically justifiable. The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. Investigations comparing caffeine (100-680 mg) to water or placebo seldom found a statistical difference in urine volume. In the 10 studies reviewed, consumption of a CB resulted in 0-84% retention of the initial volume ingested, whereas consumption of water resulted in 0-81% retention. Further, tolerance to caffeine reduces the likelihood that a detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalance will occur. The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. Sedentary members of the general public should be at less risk than athletes because their fluid losses via sweating are smaller.

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, which measures dietary intake of 12 components in conformance to dietary guidelines in the United States ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, n.d. ). Components are split into adequacy and moderation ( Guenther et al., 2014 ; U.S. Department of

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Matthew A. Wyon, Roger Wolman, Nicolas Kolokythas, Karen Sheriff, Shaun Galloway and Adam Mattiussi

moderation is the major source of this vitamin for most humans and those who remain indoors during daylight are at increased risk of deficiency. This includes indoor athletes, and previous research has reported increased incidence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency compared with outdoor athletes (80% vs

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

is salient to athletes, as moderation of sympathetic activity (as indicated by greater high frequency HRV values) is reported to be associated with improved basketball shooting, passing, and dribbling performance. 36 The lack of changes in physiological HRV profiles may be attributed to the

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

results indicate that protein source is not likely an important factor influencing gains in strength and LBM in response to RET. As two dietary principles are moderation and variety, rather than relying on just one source, including soy protein as an option for meeting protein needs for those wanting to

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Phil Ferrar, Lillian Hosea, Miles Henson, Nadine Dubina, Guy Krueger, Jamie Staff and Wade Gilbert

everyone contributing, even the more reticent ones. Once a week we had a team dinner. One time, I’d talked to them all about doing things in moderation, including celebrations. The night after the next competition, I spotted them in the bar eating salads and having one beer each. Point was, they were

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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

principles of activity programming and training, including: -progression -overload -specificity -balance, moderation, and variety -maintenance -reversibility -cost–benefit ratio Explain factors affecting participation and constraints to being active and explore how to overcome the latter to gain access to

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James Hardy, Nikos Comoutos and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

that enable inferences for mediating effects, generating more robust mechanism oriented data. Using more sophisticated analyses (e.g., structural equation modelling) to address mediation or moderation related research question should allow researchers to get closer to the complex nature of self-talk as