This study aimed to determine whether subject-specific individual muscle models for the ankle plantar flexors could be obtained from single joint isometric and isovelocity maximum torque measurements in combination with a model of plantar flexion. Maximum plantar flexion torque measurements were taken on one subject at six knee angles spanning full flexion to full extension. A planar three-segment (foot, shank and thigh), two-muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius) model of plantar flexion was developed. Seven parameters per muscle were determined by minimizing a weighted root mean square difference (wRMSD) between the model output and the experimental torque data. Valid individual muscle models were obtained using experimental data from only two knee angles giving a wRMSD score of 16 N m, with values ranging from 11 to 17 N m for each of the six knee angles. The robustness of the methodology was confirmed through repeating the optimization with perturbed experimental torques (±20%) and segment lengths (±10%) resulting in wRMSD scores of between 13 and 20 N m. Hence, good representations of maximum torque can be achieved from subject-specific individual muscle models determined from single joint maximum torque measurements. The proposed methodology could be applied to muscle-driven models of human movement with the potential to improve their validity.
Filipe Conceição, Mark A. King, Maurice R. Yeadon, Martin G.C. Lewis, and Stephanie E. Forrester
Rositsa T. Raikova
This commentary emphasizes three points of discussion. (a) The terminology: The terms multifunctional, synergisic, antagonistic muscles, and synergistic and antagonistic coactivations are discussed and the conclusion is drawn that they could not be used without mentioning the particular joint motion. (b) The importance of the external joint moments for activation of the muscles is confirmed on the basis of logical and mechanical considerations. Not all experimental results, however, could be explained by this means. (c) The optimization criterion: Prilutsky's conclusion concerning the predicted muscle force proportionality to the muscle moment arm and PCSA is confirmed using a simple analytical solution of the optimization problem. It is shown, however, that the proportionality to the PCSA is a consequence of the chosen optimization criterion.
Nadège Tebbache and Alain Hamaoui
.12.022 Doorenbosch , C.A. , Harlaar , J. , Roebroeck , M.E. , & Lankhorst , G.J. ( 1994 ). Two strategies of transferring from sit-to-stand; the activation of monoarticular and biarticular muscles . Journal of Biomechanics, 27 ( 11 ), 1299 – 1307 . PubMed ID: 7798280 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(94)90039-6 10