Movement is essential to the human experience, and efficient biomechanics facilitate effective action across the breadth of tasks one encounters in life. The concept of movement efficiency has been investigated and explored through a variety of means including biomechanical modeling, simulation, and experimental manipulation. Observations of elite performers for a given movement task serve as an additional line of insight into efficiency, as their movements have been driven toward optimization via competitive pressure. The authors first discuss the concept of efficiency in biomechanics from a qualitative perspective and the broad tools with which we explore it. They then highlight biomechanical investigations of elite performers and their contributions to our understanding of efficiency. Examples from various classes of movements illustrate unique insights of the elite performers in informing our understanding of movement efficiency.
Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke
Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon
motion analysis systems ( Fetters & Todd, 1987 ; von Hofsten, 1991 ) to capture infants’ goal-directed arm trajectories toward a visible target further cemented the view that infants’ early reaching attempts were visually guided. The numerous directional changes in hand path typical of infants’ early
Mark L. Latash
of times a day for years. Bernstein used a very ingenious motion analysis system to record the trajectories of bulbs placed on the subject’s body as well as on the hammer. He made two important observations. First, all trajectories, including the hammer trajectory, showed substantial variability