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Megan A. Kirk and Ryan E. Rhodes

Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Major findings were summarized based on common subtopics of overall intervention effect, locomotor skill outcomes, object-control outcomes, and gender differences. Trials ranged from 8 to 24 weeks and offered 540–1700 min of instruction. The majority of trials (n = 9) significantly improved FMS of preschoolers with DD, with a large intervention effect (η2 = 0.57–0.85). This review supports the utility of interventions to improve FMS of preschoolers with DD. Future researchers are encouraged to include more robust designs, a theoretical framework, and involvement of parents and teachers in the delivery of the intervention.

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Mia Pless and Marianne Carlsson

The purpose was to determine whether evidence exists in published research from 1970 to 1996 to support motor skill intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or equivalent conditions. The following questions were addressed: (a) Which (if any) of three theoretical approaches to motor skill interventions is supported by evidence? (b) How do age of participants, research design, intervention setting, and intervention duration affect motor outcomes? (c) What are the results of meta-analysis? Twenty-one relevant studies were identified, and 13 (all that reported means and standard deviations) were subjected to meta-analysis. Findings indicated that motor skill intervention is most effective when applied with (a) children with DCD over age 5, (b) the specific skill theoretical approach, (c) intervention conducted in a group setting or as a home program, and (d) intervention frequency of at least 3 to 5 times per week. No clear findings emerged in regard to other variables.

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Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill

This study was conducted to determine the influence of a motor skill intervention (MSI) program on the perceived competence and social acceptance of African American preschoolers who are at risk of school failure/developmental delay. Two groups of preschoolers enrolled in a compensatory prekindergarten program participated in a 12-week intervention. The motor skill intervention (MSI) group received an MSI program, while the control group (C) received the regular prekindergarten program. All children completed Harter’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance prior to and following the 12-week program. The results indicated that all children, regardless of group, reported high perceived physical and cognitive competence and high perceived maternal and peer acceptance. Additionally, the MSI group reported significantly higher perceived physical competence scores after receiving the MSI program. The MSI group also reported higher perceived physical competence than the C group on postintervention scores. No gender differences were found. It was concluded that perceived competence and social acceptance were enhanced by participation in an MSI program.

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Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd

The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.

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Michelle Hamilton, Jacqueline Goodway and John Haubenstricker

The purpose was to investigate the effectiveness of parental involvement on the acquisition of object-control skills of preschool children who are at risk for developmental delay or academic failure. The experimental group (n = 15) participated in an 8-week motor skill intervention program consisting of two 45-min lessons per week delivered by the children’s parents. The control group (n = 12) participated in the regular motor skill program, which consisted of movement songs delivered by the parents. All children were pretested and posttested on the object-control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985). Both groups performed in the lower 20th percentile on the pretest. A 2 X 2 (Group X Test) ANOVA revealed that the experimental group improved significantly in the object-control subscale score from pretest to posttest, whereas the control group did not change. The results provide support for including parents in the instructional process of children who are at risk for developmental delay or academic failure.

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Research Evidence-Based Practice and Research: A Challenge to the Development of Adapted Physical Activity Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler * 7 2011 28 3 189 209 10.1123/apaq.28.3.189 Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers With Developmental Delay Megan A. Kirk

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.2015-0040 Application School-Based Fundamental-Motor-Skill Intervention for Children With Autism-Like Characteristics: An Exploratory Study Emily Bremer * Meghann Lloyd * 1 2016 33 1 66 88 10.1123/APAQ.2015-0009 Brief Research Note Agreement of BMI-Based Equations and DXA in Determining Body

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Exposed to Drugs in Utero: A Meta-Analysis Susan J. Tarr * Jean L. Pyfer * 7 1996 13 3 269 287 10.1123/apaq.13.3.269 Influence of a Motor Skill Intervention Program on Perceived Competence of At-Risk African American Preschoolers Jacqueline D. Goodway * Mary E. Rudisill * 7 1996 13 3 288 301 10

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Research Preparation of Leadership Personnel in Adapted Physical Education: A Follow-Up Study Jeffrey A. McCubbin * John M. Dunn * 10 2000 17 4 371 380 10.1123/apaq.17.4.371 Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Mia Pless * Marianne

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Cathal Óg O’Sullivan, Melissa Parker, Tom Comyns and Annmarie Ralph

Lancet, 380 ( 9838 ), 219 – 229 . PubMed ID: 22818936 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9 Logan , S.W. , Robinson , L.E. , Wilson , A.E. , & Lucas , W.A. ( 2012 ). Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children . Child