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Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley and Jennifer Cumming

This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully performing the golf putting task 5 times each day for 4 days whereas the VI practice group imaged the ball rolling into the hole. Only the LSRT group experienced an improvement in kinesthetic MI ability, MI ability of more complex skills, and actual golf putting performance. Results support bioinformational theory by demonstrating that LSRT can facilitate visual and kinesthetic MI ability and reiterate the importance of imagery ability to ensure MI is an effective prime for movement execution.

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Linda Schücker, Christian Knopf, Bernd Strauss and Norbert Hagemann

The aim of this study was to examine differentiated effects of internally focused attention in endurance sports. Thirty-two active runners ran 24 min on a treadmill at a fixed speed of moderate intensity. For each 6-min block, participants had to direct their attention on different internal aspects (movement execution, breathing, or feeling of the body) or received no instructions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to determine running economy. Results revealed that the different internal focus instructions had differentiated effects on VO2: A focus on breathing as well as a focus on the running movement led to higher VO2 than a focus on feeling of the body which showed similar VO2 as the control condition. We conclude that an internal focus of attention is solely detrimental to performance when directed to highly automated processes (e.g., breathing or movement). However, an internal focus on how the body feels during exercise does not disrupt movement efficiency.

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

between MI and actual movement. Vogt, Di Rienzo, Collet, Collins, and Guillot ( 2013 ) evoked that MI engages motor systems and that the cerebral plasticity resulting from real movement execution also occurs as a result of MI. For example, Ehrsson, Geyer, and Naito ( 2003 ) observed that MI of tongue

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne and Max J. Kurz

lack of end-state comfort effect, which potentially indicates deficits in forward planning. This may have had cascading effects on the final movement execution since the children had an increased number of task failures during the second sequence of movement. The outcomes of this study imply that

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

rest of the BACs ( n  =15) are displayed one after another in randomized order. For each anchor concept being displayed together with one of the remaining BACs, participants are asked to decide on a yes/no basis whether the given BAC is related to the anchor concept or not during movement execution

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Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce and Giancarlo Condello

movement execution was slow, and each technique learnt was repeated eight times for four sets. In the second cycle, the velocity of movement execution was moderate, and the techniques were repeated six times for six sets. Each training session comprised three phases: a 10-min judo-specific warm-up (e

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02554.x 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02554.x Williams , S.E. , Cooley , S.J. , & Cumming , J. ( 2013 ). Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution . Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 35 , 60 – 71 . doi: 10

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Rob Gray, Anders Orn and Tim Woodman

display group, the significant decrease in targets hit under pressure seemed to occur for different reasons. For this group, there were no significant changes in the kinematic variables, suggesting that movement execution was still “expert-like” under pressure. In other words, participants in this group

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

rather relates stronger to an individual’s perceived competence. That is, in adolescents, the items of the TGMD-3 may not be difficult enough to manifest significant barriers during movement execution; therefore, self-efficacy, when defined as the ability to perform in the presence of barriers, may not

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

), however, proposed a planning-control model which argues that movement planning, not movement execution, is susceptible to visual illusions ( Glover & Dixon, 2001 ). From Glover and Dixon’s perspective, the extent to which illusion influences a goal-directed action depends on the relative importance of