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Billy Chun-Lung So, Calvin Hong-Nin Yuen, Ken Long-Hin Tung, Sheena Lam, Sammy Lan Cheng, Zina Wing-Lam Hung, Rainy Wai-Kwan Leung and Grace Pui-Yuk Szeto

and impact experienced in running on land. 7 However, participants need to overcome water resistance and turbulence in an unstable floating environment. 8 Therefore, it is reasonable to query to what extent trunk muscle activation to stabilize the body during DWR differs from that needed on land. 9

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Sarah A. Roelker, Elena J. Caruthers, Rachel K. Hall, Nicholas C. Pelz, Ajit M.W. Chaudhari and Robert A. Siston

Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation techniques enable estimates of variables that influence movement, including muscle activations and forces. Many of these variables are not commonly determined in human experiments because of the significant pain and discomfort to the subject with approaches

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Hong-Wen Wu, Cheng-Feng Tsai, Kai-Han Liang and Yi-Wen Chang

. The effect of different squat skills on muscle activation, such as wall squat or single-leg squat, has been examined in previous literatures. Ayotte et al 6 compared the differences of muscle activities of gluteal muscles, biceps femoris, and vastus medialis among wall squat, minisquat, and step

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Michael Sanders, Anton E. Bowden, Spencer Baker, Ryan Jensen, McKenzie Nichols and Matthew K. Seeley

tissue. 19 Related to this idea, it is important to understand how different ambulatory aids used during nonweight bearing can affect muscle activation. This understanding will assist physical rehabilitation professionals in recommending an ambulatory aid for a particular patient based on rehabilitation

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

electromyography, were found to be higher in race walking than in running. 15 However, the key factor that might facilitate a more efficient oxygen cost of transport is the timing of muscle activation during the gait cycle, 16 as preactivation of lower limb posterior musculature has been found to relate to the

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

). In the exercise domain, studies have measured muscle activation (i.e., motor unit activation) while performing isometric muscle contractions ( Bray et al., 2008 ; Graham, Sonne, & Bray, 2014 ) and endurance cycling ( Pageaux, Marcora, Rozand, & Lepers, 2015 ). These studies have shown that

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

the bladder as needed while paddling in the ocean for extended periods of time. If the bladder can assist the surfer in maintaining the proper prone posture while paddling through passive extension of the trunk, this may result in less muscle activation of back, neck, and shoulder extensor muscles

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Hande Guney-Deniz, Gulcan Harput, Ugur Toprak and Irem Duzgun

could be increased with passive manual assistance of scapula into upward rotation and posterior tilt during static shoulder abduction in both asymptomatic individuals and patients with SAIS. They suggested that measuring the scapular and/or rotator cuff muscle activation might explain the changes in AHD

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Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan and John Goetschius

chronicity of CAI. Evidence suggests that chronic eversion muscle weakness, 8 – 10 shank and foot muscle atrophy, 11 and altered fibularis longus and tibialis anterior muscle activation patterns during functional movements and gait 12 , 13 are present in patients with CAI when compared with healthy

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

on the subject population evaluated or that multiple SFx were evaluated at once with variable risk factors reported. Despite this, there are predictive factors that may be identified specifically to tibial SFx, including, foot structure, muscle activation of the triceps surae and anterior compartment