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Billy Chun-Lung So, Calvin Hong-Nin Yuen, Ken Long-Hin Tung, Sheena Lam, Sammy Lan Cheng, Zina Wing-Lam Hung, Rainy Wai-Kwan Leung and Grace Pui-Yuk Szeto

and impact experienced in running on land. 7 However, participants need to overcome water resistance and turbulence in an unstable floating environment. 8 Therefore, it is reasonable to query to what extent trunk muscle activation to stabilize the body during DWR differs from that needed on land. 9

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Hong-Wen Wu, Cheng-Feng Tsai, Kai-Han Liang and Yi-Wen Chang

. The effect of different squat skills on muscle activation, such as wall squat or single-leg squat, has been examined in previous literatures. Ayotte et al 6 compared the differences of muscle activities of gluteal muscles, biceps femoris, and vastus medialis among wall squat, minisquat, and step

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Michael Sanders, Anton E. Bowden, Spencer Baker, Ryan Jensen, McKenzie Nichols and Matthew K. Seeley

tissue. 19 Related to this idea, it is important to understand how different ambulatory aids used during nonweight bearing can affect muscle activation. This understanding will assist physical rehabilitation professionals in recommending an ambulatory aid for a particular patient based on rehabilitation

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

the bladder as needed while paddling in the ocean for extended periods of time. If the bladder can assist the surfer in maintaining the proper prone posture while paddling through passive extension of the trunk, this may result in less muscle activation of back, neck, and shoulder extensor muscles

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Hande Guney-Deniz, Gulcan Harput, Ugur Toprak and Irem Duzgun

could be increased with passive manual assistance of scapula into upward rotation and posterior tilt during static shoulder abduction in both asymptomatic individuals and patients with SAIS. They suggested that measuring the scapular and/or rotator cuff muscle activation might explain the changes in AHD

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Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan and John Goetschius

chronicity of CAI. Evidence suggests that chronic eversion muscle weakness, 8 – 10 shank and foot muscle atrophy, 11 and altered fibularis longus and tibialis anterior muscle activation patterns during functional movements and gait 12 , 13 are present in patients with CAI when compared with healthy

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

on the subject population evaluated or that multiple SFx were evaluated at once with variable risk factors reported. Despite this, there are predictive factors that may be identified specifically to tibial SFx, including, foot structure, muscle activation of the triceps surae and anterior compartment

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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

attention on predicting muscle activation levels in order to reduce injury risks and increase performance in the sport. 6 , 14 , 15 Golf-related EMG studies that have investigated the trunk muscles often include the erector spinae muscle. 8 , 13 , 16 These studies, however, have only investigated the

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Gretchen Oliver, Lisa Henning and Hillary Plummer

The purpose of this study was to examine activations of selected scapular stabilizing musculature while performing an overhead throw with a hold (not releasing the ball) in two different throwing positions—standing with a crow hop and kneeling on the ipsilateral knee. Surface electromyography was used to examine activations of throwing side lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), serratus anterior (SA), and upper trapezius (UT). Muscle activations were recorded while performing the overhead throw with holds while in two throwing positions. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences between the two throwing conditions and muscle activations of LT, MT, SA, and UT: F(8,124) = .804, p = .600; Wilks’s Λ = .904, partial η2 = .049. Although no significant differences were observed in the scapular stabilizers between the two conditions, moderate (21–50% MVIC) to high (> 50% MVIC) activations of each muscle were present, indicating that nonrelease throws may be beneficial for scapular stabilization in throwers.

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

-tolerant). These differences can be identified during standing a priori to LBP onset and include muscle activation patterns. 5 – 7 , 11 Individuals classified as standing-intolerant demonstrated a reversal of the typical muscle activation sequence during return-to-stand from forward flexion and atypical flexion