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Mark L. Latash

. Second, in many recent studies, synergy means a number of elemental variables (for example, muscle activations, joint rotations, or digit forces) that show parallel changes with changes in task parameters and/or over the time of movement execution ( d’Avella, Saltiel, & Bizzi, 2003 ; Jerde, Soechting

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

joint angles and muscle activations do not need to be specified or planned/programmed in advance of movement execution. On the other hand, the central tenet of schema theory and how we produce novel movement solutions is the general motor program concept, which provides an outline of the movements

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

context have predictable measures that become altered as a result of injury to the brain. In this context, we can evaluate CNS integrity through gait initiation task measurement and quality of movement strategies employed. APAs regulate the center of mass (CoM) of the body through trunk and leg muscle

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Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow and John J. Jeka

or muscle activation. The bias toward foot placement as the primary balance mechanism may be hindering exposure of other mechanisms that play an important role in balance during walking. Push-Off Strategy A final addition to our biomechanical model is the second leg and a second degree of freedom at

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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

– 26 . doi:10.2307/1165480 10.2307/1165480 Chang , C.L. , Kubo , M. , Buzzi , U. , & Ulrich , B. ( 2006 ). Early changes in muscle activation patterns of toddlers during walking . Infant Behavior & Development, 29 ( 2 ), 175 – 188 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2005.10.001 10.1016/j

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Bradley D. Hatfield

(IAPS): Technical manual and affective ratings .  Gainesville, FL : The Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention . Lay , B.S. , Sparrow , W.A. , Hughes , K.M. , & O’Dwyer , N.J. ( 2002 ). Practice effects on coordination and control, metabolic energy expenditure, and muscle activation

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

: A simulation model examination of optimal timing of muscle activations . Journal of Theoretical Biology, 211 ( 1 ), 39 – 53 . PubMed ID: 11407890 doi: 10.1006/jtbi.2001.2332 Cooper , R. , Kuh , D. , Hardy , R. , Team , F.S. , & Team , H.S. ( 2010 ). Objectively measured physical

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

Cord, 44 , 341 – 351 . PubMed ID: 16304564 doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3101855 10.1038/sj.sc.3101855 Fenuta , A.M. , & Hicks , A.L. ( 2014 ). Metabolic demand and muscle activation during different forms of bodyweight supported locomotion in men with incomplete SCI . BioMed Research International