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Tom Clifford

). Another consequence of aging is that it increases the time required to fully recover from exercise, especially from resistance exercise that encompasses eccentric muscle contractions, as this type of contraction has been shown to cause the most muscle damage ( Borges, Reaburn, Driller, & Argus, 2016

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James Fell and Andrew Dafydd Williams

Recovery from exercise is integral to the physical training process. There is a perception among older athletes that aging negatively affects the recovery process. Plausible arguments for an impaired recovery with aging are a greater susceptibility of older muscle to exercise-induced skeletal-muscle damage and a slower repair and adaptation response. Differences in the physical activity level of the research participants are rarely considered, however. This makes it difficult to differentiate the respective roles of declining physical activity and aging on the recovery process. Furthermore, the type of exercise used to induce damage and monitor recovery is often not indicative of a normal training stimulus for athletes. This review discusses the effects of aging on skeletal-muscle damage and recovery processes and highlights the limitations of many of these studies with respect to older athletes. Future research should use an exercise intervention representative of a normal training stimulus and take the physical activity level of the participants into account.

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Mike I. Lambert, Lise Bryer, David B. Hampson, Les Nobbs, Andrea M. Rapolthy, M. Sharhidd Taliep and L. Wayne Viljoen

The aim of this study was to measure the change in running performance in a runner from age 27–64 years. During this time the runner had a history of high-volume training and racing. The change in his average running speed over 10-, 21.1-, 42.2-, and 90-km races was compared with the changes in the age-group records for each distance. He trained an average of 4,051 ± 1,762 km/year and ran 16,604 km during races. His training load reached a peak of 7,596 km/year at the age of 33. His rate of decline in running performance was higher than the expected age decline at 47 years for 10-km, 47 years for 21.1-km, 40 years for the 42.2-km, and 48 years for 90-km races. Decreases in performance with increasing age could be explained by reduced training volume, or, alternatively, high volumes of training and racing might accelerate the normal age-related decrements in running performance.

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

in skeletal muscle ( McKay et al., 2009 ). High-intensity exercise also increases blood myoglobin levels, indicating muscle damage, which can stimulate muscle growth in an untrained state, but muscle damage is likely not necessary in a trained state to induce muscle hypertrophy ( Damas et al., 2016

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

& Enoka, 2016 ). A typical consequence due to eccentric actions is muscle damage ( Baroni et al., 2010 ). Muscle damage may result in greater gains in strength and hypertrophy ( Farthing & Chillibeck, 2003 ; Paddon-Jones, Keech, Lonergan, & Abernethy, 2005 ). Previous studies evaluated the muscular

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

stores ( Ferguson-Stegall et al., 2011 ), and attenuating markers of muscle damage ( Cockburn, Bell, & Stevenson, 2013 ; Gilson et al., 2010 ). Athletes may benefit from the use of chocolate milk as a recovery beverage when recovery time between exercise bouts is limited (< 4–6 h) ( Dziedzic & Higham

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Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth

a greater risk of muscle damage during exercise, and the use of hormonal contraceptives generally may have implications for health and athletic performance, as they alter the concentrations of ovarian hormone exposure ( Elliott-Sale, 2018 ). All these issues are important considerations in the

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

-6 was not correlated to muscle damage in the elderly, supporting the hypothesis that aging is associated with impaired repair mechanisms including cell migration ( Toft et al., 2002 ). In addition, a previous study suggested that the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6 in response to customary

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

of oxidative stress, muscle damage and inflammation markers after acute resistance exercise in young athletes . Kinesiology, 45 , 22 – 29 . Beere , H.M. ( 2005 ). Death versus survival: Functional interaction between the apoptotic and stress-inducible heat shock protein pathways . Journal of

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

based) increases catabolic reactions or muscle breakdown due to an increased utilization of muscular amino acids, accentuated in certain conditions of exercise-inducing muscle damage, such as downhill running ( Doering, Jenkins, et al., 2016 ). At rest, protein metabolism is also dependent on the