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Yuya Watanabe, Michiya Tanimoto, Akane Ohgane, Kiyoshi Sanada, Motohiko Miyachi and Naokata Ishii

The authors investigated the effects of low-intensity resistance training on muscle size and strength in older men and women. Thirty-five participants (age 59–76 yr) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and performed low-intensity (50% of 1-repetition maximum) knee-extension and -flexion exercises with either slow movement and tonic force generation (LST; 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between repetitions) or normal speed (LN; 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rests between repetitions) twice a week for 12 wk (2-wk preparation and 10-wk intervention). The LST significantly increased thigh-muscle thickness, as well as isometric knee-extension and -flexion strength. The LN significantly improved strength, but its hypertrophic effect was limited. These results indicate that even for older individuals, the LST can be an effective method for gaining muscle mass and strength.

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Thomas M. Maden-Wilkinson, Jamie S. McPhee, David A. Jones and Hans Degens

To investigate reasons for the age-related reduction in physical function, we determined the relationships between muscle size, strength, and power with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go performance in 49 young (23 ± 3.1 years) and 66 healthy, mobile older adults (72 ± 5 years). While muscle mass, determined by DXA and MRI, did not correlate with performance in the older adults, power per body mass, determined from a countermovement jump, did correlate. The 40% lower jumping power observed in older adults (p < .05) was due to a lower take-off velocity, which explained 34% and 42% of the variance in 6MWD in older women and men, respectively (p < .01). The lower velocity was partly attributable to the higher body mass to maximal force ratio, but most was due to a lower intrinsic muscle speed. While changes in muscle function explain part of the age-related reduction in functional performance, ~60% of the deficit remains to be explained.

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade and Katia E. Ferrar

is not a universally agreed definition of exercise modifiable physical factors, the research team included any predictor outcomes that measured the constructs: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength (including proxy measures such as muscle mass and muscle size which are well established

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

, 46 ( 3 ), 451 – 456 . Lastayo , P.C. , Pierotti, , D.J. , Pifer , J. , Hoppeler , H. , & Lindstedt , S.L. ( 2000 ). Eccentric ergometry: Increases in locomotor muscle size and strength at low training intensities . American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

( Van Roie et al., 2013 ). Watanabe, Madarame, Ogasawara, Nakazato, and Ishii ( 2014 ) reported that low-intensity exercise (30% of one repetition maximum) increased the muscle size and strength in older adults aged 60–77 years ( Watanabe et al., 2014 ). The exercise protocol comprised three sets of

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

, Valentin, & Teillet, 2004 ). Indeed, aging, is characterized by a general degradation of the physiological functions which are associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions ( Guevara, Gianotti, Oliver, & Roca, 2011 ) and a progressive decrease in muscle size (e.g., 0.5–1% per year from the age of 50

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Hitoshi Koda, Yoshihiro Kai, Shin Murata, Hironori Osugi, Kunihiko Anami, Takahiko Fukumoto and Hidetaka Imagita

), 119 – 125 . PubMed ID: 11937474 doi:10.1093/ageing/31.2.119 10.1093/ageing/31.2.119 Suetta , C. , Aagaard , P. , Magnusson , S.P. , Andersen , L.L. , Sipilä , S. , Rosted , A. , … Kjaer , M. ( 2007 ). Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men

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Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Paul D. Loprinzi

, Gordish-Dressman H , Thompson PD , et al . Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2005 ; 37 ( 6 ): 964 – 972 . PubMed 15947721 20. Dankel SJ , Loenneke JP , Loprinzi PD . Participation in muscle-strengthening activities

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Weiyang Deng, Douglas L. Vanderbilt and Beth A. Smith

further research with neural imaging would be required to determine this. Another possible reason for a smaller proportion of unilateral movements in infants AR could be uneven rates of development in muscle size and strength and/or excitatory and inhibitory interlimb pathways. Thelen proposed that these

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

. PubMed ID: 7565998 doi: 10.1056/NEJM199511023331824 Mitchell , W.K. , Williams , J. , Atherton , P. , Larvin , M. , Lund , J. , & Narici , M. ( 2012 ). Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review . Frontiers in