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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis

example, an upset stomach, feelings of physical weakness, and muscle stiffness or tension (e.g.,  Grossbard, Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2009 ). Physiological indices of increased arousal include elevated heart rate, secretion of stress-hormones, muscle tension, and heightened blood-pressure ( Noteboom

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James M. Robbins and Paul Joseph

The types and frequency of sensations experienced by runners when required to miss a run or series of runs was studied. Most of 345 runners of various weekly mileage levels reported some kind of distress; irritability, restlessness, frustration, guilt, and depression were reported most often. Sleeping problems, digestive difficulties, and muscle tension and soreness were reported less frequently. Three causes of exercise withdrawal were proposed: (a) a misinterpretation of the return of dysphoria that had been temporarily masked by the effects of running; (b) an inability to cope with stress in periods when the coping mechanism of running is temporarily unavailable; and (c) the loss of regular, predictable reinforcement of feelings of self-fulfillment gained through success or achievement in previously unimagined and unattainable ways. Results, based on cross-sectional data, were consistent with these hypotheses but do not rule out alternative explanations. The reciprocal nature of number of miles run in an average week and exercise deprivation sensations was also studied. Results indicated that runners tended to run longer in order to avoid the negative sensations that would come from not running, but that an escalation in mileage did not necessarily result in more frequent experiences of distress when not able to run.

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Craig A. Wrisberg and Johannes Raabe

he might use to help him manage his anxiety. I suggested that he might add a relaxation breath (to diminish muscle tension) and a simple focus cue (i.e., attention control) to center his attention on something under his control. Before leaving the session, Alex practiced several minutes of

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Aynollah Naderi, Fatemeh Shaabani, Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Luís Calmeiro and Britton W. Brewer

increase in athletes’ susceptibility to injury is thought to occur due to changes in physiological (e.g., increased muscle tension, fatigue, impaired timing, and motor coordination) and attentional (e.g., narrowing of visual field, distractibility, loss of task-relevant cues) processes ( Brewer & Redmond

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

Sport Biofeedback provides feedback on physiological responses related to the sympathetic nervous system’s stress response. Essentially, when the sympathetic nervous system is activated, the body responds physiologically by (a) increasing respiration rate, heart rate, electrodermal activity, and muscle

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Martin J. Turner, Gillian Aspin, Faye F. Didymus, Rory Mack, Peter Olusoga, Andrew G. Wood and Richard Bennett

these emotions from 0% to 100% Underperformance in training and competition, which presents as missed passes, lack of accuracy when shooting, and unhelpful muscle tension “I’m useless at soccer these days.” (80%) “What’s the point in trying anymore?” (50%) “I’ll never make the starting lineup if I

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Bradley D. Hatfield

the expert to a novice-like brain state) characterized by excess muscle tension via elevated motor unit recruitment beyond that needed for the movement. Furthermore, compromised coordination of the synergistic action of muscles would occur (i.e., cocontraction, reduced range of motion, and altered

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Susanna Kola-Palmer, Samantha Buckley, Gabrielle Kingston, Jonathan Stephen, Alison Rodriguez, Nicole Sherretts and Kiara Lewis

cognitive factors, physiological reactions (e.g., muscle tension), and attentional factors (e.g., increased distractability). The interaction of these variables can increase an athlete’s susceptibility to injury by influencing coordination and flexibility along with interfering with the detection of

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

resources available to cope ( Smith, 1986 ). Smith ( 1986 ) argued that if an individual’s appraisals do not enable one to effectively cope with the perceived situational demands, physiological and behavioral responses ensue. It is such physiological and behavioral responses (e.g., muscle tension