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Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton

resulting network structures within which individuals operate allow for a more complete understanding of many social phenomena—including sport consumption. Examining networks is based on the theoretical proposition that individuals exist in unique social contexts, and that context affects their behaviors

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Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du

influences individual behaviors and attitudes ( Perry, Pescosolido, & Borgatti, 2018 ). Within social network analysis, Borgatti and Halgin ( 2011 ) defined network theory as “the mechanisms and processes that interact with network structures to yield certain outcomes for individuals and groups” (p. 1168

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Matthew Katz, Nefertiti A. Walker and Lauren C. Hindman

which SWAs operate. Leadership, we will argue in the following sections, requires the recognition and understanding of the network relations that connect people ( Balkundi & Kilduff, 2006 )—including both the formal and informal network structures within which such relationships occur. As such, our

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Matthew Katz, Aaron C. Mansfield and B. David Tyler

of the focal actor (i.e., ego), attributes of the individuals with whom ego shares a tie (i.e., alters), and the resulting network structure. To merely examine how ego-level variables affect well-being neglects the role of social context and the influence of networks upon individual well

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Catherine Quatman and Packianathan Chelladurai

The works of Kuhn (1996) and other scholars on the social construction of knowledge suggest that great insight can be gained about an academic field of study by investigating interaction patterns between and among scholars. Using a social network perspective, the intent of this study was to empirically explore the social interaction patterns among scholars in the field of sport management. A network model of coauthorship was generated using several rounds of sampling of scholars in the field and archival data collection from relevant journals. The derived network structure was then explored both visually and quantitatively for meaningful patterns. The results of the study essentially tell a story of the evolution and current state of the field’s collaboration structure. Drawing on propositions from the literature on the sociology of scientific knowledge generation, the findings are discussed relative to what the obtained network structure might hold for sport management scholarship.

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Gareth J. Jones, Mike Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds and Jordan W. Smith

Interorganizational partnerships have been used by nonprofits in a variety of industries to build organizational capacity, yet they are currently underutilized by many youth sport nonprofit organizations. While previous research has highlighted key features of dyadic relationships that inhibit the development and maintenance of partnerships, there has been less attention to the influence of broader or complete networks. This study examined key structural properties of a youth sport nonprofit network in one municipality to determine how interorganizational partnerships were used to build organizational capacity. Whole network analysis was used to study partnerships between youth sport nonprofits and analyze the configuration and structural features of the network. Results indicated a fragmented network of youth sport nonprofit organizations, with the majority of organizations operating independently of one another, and the network itself characterized by unbalanced ties. The discussion highlights how this network structure influences organizational action and contributes to relational issues often observed at the dyadic level. The introduction of a third-party brokerage organization is discussed as a potentially useful strategy for improving this network structure.

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Dana L. Ellis, Milena M. Parent and Benoit Seguin

This article examines how Olympic ambush marketing stakeholder power and transfer of sponsorship, as well as ambush marketing knowledge, have influenced institutional processes leading to the institutionalization of antiambush legislation over the years. Using a qualitative case study design and network analysis, findings show the International Olympic Committee and Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games demonstrate the greatest stakeholder influence within the Olympic ambush marketing network. The power and influence resulting from the structure of Olympic ambush marketing networks was argued to impact the institutional processes of objectification and sedimentation. Various knowledge transfer tools, as well as challenges and issues faced in this area, seem to act as moderators for the relationship between network structures and the process of institutionalization.

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun

unbalanced network structures ultimately create market inefficiencies that detract from sector-wide growth and impact. For example, in the youth sport context, there is clear empirical evidence of the value and importance of sport sampling (e.g., multisport experiences) and diverse leisure repertoires

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Kathy Babiak, Lucie Thibault and Annick Willem

. More specifically, suggested research prospects such as network dynamics (cf. Babiak & Thibault, 2009 ; Steen-Johnsen, 2008 ); network structures where coordination is managed and knowledge, information, and resources are shared (cf. Sallent, Palau, & Guia, 2011 ; Wäsche & Woll, 2013 ); how access

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Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro and Nicholas M. Watanabe

that the players went beyond their normal network connections during the time of protest to actively spread messages on Twitter. Together, low density and high betweenness centrality indicated that although certain members functioned as important bridges within the network structure, it was the