Goal-directed movement is possible because the cortical regions regulating movement have continuous access to visual information. Extensive research from the various domains of motor control (i.e., neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and psychophysics) has documented the extent to which the unremitting availability of visual information enables the sensorimotor system to facilitate online control of goal-directed limb movement. However, the control mechanism guiding appreciably more complex movements characterized by ballistic, whole-body coordination is not well understood. In the overarm throw, for example, joint rotations must be optimally timed between body segments to exploit the passive flow of kinetic energy and, in turn, maximize projectile speed while maintaining accuracy. The purpose of this review is to draw from the various research domains in motor control and speculate on the nature of the sensorimotor control mechanism facilitating overarm throwing performance.
Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala
adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation . Journal of Neurophysiology . 1990 ; 63 ( 1 ): 82 . http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/63/1/82 2299388 10.1152/jn.19126.96.36.199 27. Erickson KI , Leckie RL , Weinstein AM . Physical activity, fitness, and gray
Scott C. Livingston
Edited by Monique Mokha
Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher
research . Clinical Neurophysiology, 120 ( 12 ), 2008 – 2039 . PubMed ID: 19833552 doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016 Rossini , P.M. , Burke , D. , Chen , R. , Cohen , L.G. , Daskalakis , Z. , Di Iorio , R. , . . . Ziemann , U. ( 2015 ). Non-invasive electrical
Olaf Sporns and Gerald M. Edelman
Onno G. Meijer and Rob Bongaardt
Joanne E. Folker, Bruce E. Murdoch, Louise M. Cahill, Kristin M. Rosen, Martin B. Delatycki, Louise A. Corben and Adam P. Vogel
Electromagnetic articulography (EMA) was used to investigate the tongue kinematics in the dysarthria associated with Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA). The subject group consisted of four individuals diagnosed with FRDA. Five nonneurologically impaired individuals, matched for age and gender, served as controls. Each participant was assessed using the AG-200 EMA system during six repetitions of the tongue tip sentence Tess told Dan to stay fit and the tongue back sentence Karl got a croaking frog. Results revealed reduced speed measures (i.e., maximum acceleration / deceleration / velocity), greater movement durations and increased articulatory distances for the approach phases of consonant productions. The approach phase, involving movement up to the palate, was more affected than the release phase. It is suggested that deviant lingual kinematics could be the outcome of disturbances to cerebellar function, or possibly in combination with disturbances to upper motor neuron systems.
Matt S. Stock and Brennan J. Thompson
We examined the means, medians, and variability for motor-unit interpulse intervals (IPIs) during voluntary, high force contractions. Eight men (mean age = 22 years) attempted to perform isometric contractions at 90% of their maximal voluntary contraction force while bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles. Surface EMG signal decomposition was used to determine the recruitment thresholds and IPIs of motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels ≥ 96.0%. Motor units with high recruitment thresholds demonstrated longer mean IPIs, but the coefficients of variation were similar across all recruitment thresholds. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that for both muscles, the relationship between the means and standard deviations of the IPIs was linear. The majority of IPI histograms were positively skewed. Although low-threshold motor units were associated with shorter IPIs, the variability among motor units with differing recruitment thresholds was comparable.
Y.L. Lo, H.H. Zhang, C.C. Wang, Z.Y. Chin, S. Fook-Chong, C. Gabriel and C.T. Guan
In overt reading and singing tasks, actual vocalization of words in a rhythmic fashion is performed. During execution of these tasks, the role of underlying vascular processes in relation to cortical excitability changes in a spatial manner is uncertain. Our objective was to investigate cortical excitability changes during reading and singing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as vascular changes with nearinfrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Findings with TMS and NIRS were correlated. TMS and NIRS recordings were performed in 5 normal subjects while they performed reading and singing tasks separately. TMS was applied over the left motor cortex at 9 positions 2.5 cm apart. NIRS recordings were made over these identical positions. Although both TMS and NIRS showed significant mean cortical excitability and hemodynamic changes from baseline during vocalization tasks, there was no significant spatial correlation of these changes evaluated with the 2 techniques over the left motor cortex. Our findings suggest that increased left-sided cortical excitability from overt vocalization tasks in the corresponding “hand area” were the result of “functional connectivity,” rather than an underlying “vascular overflow mechanism” from the adjacent speech processing or face/mouth areas. Our findings also imply that functional neurophysiological and vascular methods may evaluate separate underlying processes, although subjects performed identical vocalization tasks. Future research combining similar methodologies should embrace this aspect and harness their separate capabilities.
Jeff A. Nessler, Tomas Gonzales, Eric Rhoden, Matthew Steinbrick and Charles J. De Leone
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interpersonal synchronization of stepping on stride interval dynamics during over-ground walking. Twenty-seven footswitch instrumented subjects walked under three conditions: independent (SOLO), alongside a partner (PAIRED), and side by side with intentional synchronization (FORCED). A subset of subjects also synchronized stepping to a metronome (MET). Stride time power spectral density and detrended fluctuation analysis revealed that the rate of autocorrelation decay in stride time was similar for both the SOLO and PAIRED conditions, but was significantly reduced during the FORCED and MET conditions (p=0.03 & 0.002). Stride time variability was also significantly increased for the FORCED and MET conditions (p<0.001). These data suggest that forced synchronization of stepping results in altered stride interval dynamics, likely through increased active control by the CNS. Passive side by side stepping, where synchronization is subconscious, does not appreciably alter stepping in this manner.