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Kym J. Williams, Dale W. Chapman, Elissa J. Phillips and Nick Ball

Purpose: To establish the influence of athlete-dependent characteristics on the generation and timing of system and individual joint powers during a countermovement jump (CMJ). Methods: Male national representative athletes from volleyball (n = 7), basketball (n = 6), and rugby (n = 7) performed a set of 3 CMJs at relative barbell loads of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of absolute back-squat strength. Ground-reaction forces and joint kinematics were captured using a 16-camera motion-capture system integrated with 2 in-ground force plates. Limb lengths and cross-sectional areas were defined using 3-dimensional photonic scans. A repeated-measures analysis of variance determined the interaction between system and joint load–power profiles, whereas a multiregression analysis defined the explained variance of athlete-dependent characteristics on the load that maximized system power. Results: System and isolated hip, knee, and ankle peak powers were maximized across a spectrum of loads between and within sports; power values were not significantly different across loads. A positive shift in the timing of hip and ankle peak powers corresponded to a significant (P < .05) positive shift in the timing of system peak power to occur closer to toe-off. An optimal 3-input combination of athlete-dependent characteristics accounted for 68% (P < .001) of the explained variance in the load that maximized system peak power. Conclusion: The load maximizing system power is athlete-dependent, with a mixture of training and heredity-related characteristics influencing CMJ load–power profiles. The authors recommend that a combination of relative loads be individually prescribed to maximize the generation and translation of system CMJ power.

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Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

. Perception of effort reflects central motor command during movement execution . Psychophysiology . 2012 ( 49 ): 1242 – 1253 . 26. Pageaux B , Gaveau J . Studies using pharmacological blockade of muscle afferents provide new insights into the neurophysiology of perceived exertion . J Physiol . 2016

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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri and Michael G. Miller

or cool environmental conditions has generally shown performance benefits, 10 its efficacy in hot, humid conditions is not as well-known and is inconsistent, at best. A recent review on the neurophysiology of human performance in the heat 1 supports the assertion that the effect of caffeine on

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

. Schwartz JRL , Roth T . Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: basic science and clinical implications . Curr Neuropharmacol . 2008 ; 6 ( 4 ): 367 – 378 . PubMed ID: 19587857 doi:10.2174/157015908787386050 10.2174/157015908787386050 19587857 9. Head KA , Kelly GS . Nutrients and botanicals

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Sean H. Kerr, Tiffanye M. Vargas, Mimi Nakajima and Jim Becker

evolving, which further underscores the need to consistently update concussion education curriculums. For instance, recent neurophysiology research shows that adolescents have greater difficulty than similarly tested young adults during dynamic balance control activities conducted up to 2 months

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

cognition . Journal of Neurophysiology, 104 , 322 – 335 . PubMed doi:10.1152/jn.00830.2009 10.1152/jn.00830.2009 Bar-Eli , M. , Plessner , H. , & Raab , M. ( 2011 ). Judgment, decision-making and success in sport . Oxford, UK : Wiley . 10.1002/9781119977032 Birrer , D. , & Morgan , G

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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski and Teresa Zwierko

.A. , Austin , B.P. , & Clementz , B.A. ( 2008 ). Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of reflexive and volitional saccades: Evidence from studies of humans . Brain and Cognition, 68 ( 3 ), 255 – 270 . doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2008.08.016 10.1016/j.bandc.2008