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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation . Journal of Neurophysiology . 1990 ; 63 ( 1 ): 82 . http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/63/1/82 2299388 10.1152/jn.1990.63.1.82 27. Erickson KI , Leckie RL , Weinstein AM . Physical activity, fitness, and gray

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research . Clinical Neurophysiology, 120 ( 12 ), 2008 – 2039 . PubMed ID: 19833552 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016 Rossini , P.M. , Burke , D. , Chen , R. , Cohen , L.G. , Daskalakis , Z. , Di Iorio , R. , . . . Ziemann , U

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Niamh Reilly, Gavin P. Lawrence, Thomas Mottram and Michael Khan

The perceptual-motor impairments of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are attributed to central (e.g., neurophysiology deficits that affect the retrieval or initiation of motor programs) and peripheral (e.g., anatomical deficits relating to issues with inertia of limb mechanics and muscle organization) processes. However, recent research suggests that central deficits do not affect the integration between movements. We investigate the impact of central and peripheral DS deficits on movement integration by examining the planning and execution of multiple-target multiple-arm movements. Individuals with DS, typically developing (TD), and individuals with an undifferentiated intellectual disability (UID) completed five aiming tasks: a one target; a one-arm, two-target extension; a two-arm, two-target extension (movement one was performed with one arm and movement two performed with the other); a one-arm, two-target reversal; and a two-arm, two-target reversal. Movement times (MTs) to the first target were longer in the two-target tasks compared with the one-target task. For the one-arm, two-target reversal task, this effect emerged only in individuals with DS. These results indicate that individuals with DS use central processing for movement integration similarly to their TD and UID counterparts but cannot exploit peripheral-level integration to enhance integration in one-arm reversal tasks.

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

effect was defined as the unintended force production by the nontask digits during single-digit or multidigits pressing task. Enslaving effect is associated with the biomechanics of hand, neurophysiology, and motor control in the brain ( Slobounov, Chiang, Johnston, & Ray, 2002 ). A study of patients

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

. PubMed doi:10.1093/cercor/12.10.1048 10.1093/cercor/12.10.1048 Cansino , S. , & Trejo-Morales , P. ( 2008 ). Neurophysiology of successful encoding and retrieval of source memory . Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 8 ( 1 ), 85 – 98 . PubMed doi:10.3758/CABN.8.1.85 10.3758/CABN.8

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

neuroscience, and how can we get more of them? Journal of Neurophysiology, 119 ( 6 ), 2114 – 2117 . 10.1152/jn.00765.2017 Arns , M. , Kleinnijenhuis , M. , Fallahpour , K. , & Breteler , R. ( 2008 ). Golf performance enhancement and real-life neurofeedback training using personalized event

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Jason R. Themanson, Nicole J. Bing, Brad E. Sheese and Matthew B. Pontifex

. PubMed ID: 14963333 doi:10.1126/science.1089910 10.1126/science.1089910 Knight , R.T. ( 1984 ). Decreased response to novel stimuli after prefrontal lesions in man . Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 59 , 9 – 20 . doi:10.1016/0168-5597(84)90016-9 10

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Phakkanut Mathurapongsakul and Akkradate Siriphorn

.T. ( 2010 ). Adaptation and reintegration of proprioceptive information in young and older adults’ postural control . Journal of Neurophysiology, 104 ( 4 ), 1969 – 1977 . PubMed ID: 20702741 doi:10.1152/jn.00345.2010 10.1152/jn.00345.2010 Goh , E.Y. , Chua , S.Y. , Hong , S.J. , & Ng , S

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Chun-Hao Wang and Kuo-Cheng Tu

-resolution EEG study . Clinical Neurophysiology, 121 , 482 – 491 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.12.004 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.12.004 Del Percio , C. , Rossini , P.M. , Marzano , N. , Iacoboni , M. , Infarinato , F. , Aschieri , P. , … Eusebi , F. ( 2008 ). Is there a “neural efficiency” in

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

.G. , & Donchin , E. ( 1983 ). A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact . Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55 ( 4 ), 468 – 484 . PubMed ID: 6187540 doi:10.1016/0013-4694(83)90135-9 10.1016/0013-4694(83)90135-9 Harmon-Jones , E. ( 2004 ). Contributions from research on