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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton

theorizing that through verbal and nonverbal behaviors, coaches contribute to the development of an athlete’s RISE beliefs and that RISE may be an additional source of self-efficacy. In sum, the aforementioned research has demonstrated evidence for the existence of RISE or relational efficacy perceptions in

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Andrea J. Becker and Craig A. Wrisberg

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the practice behaviors of Pat Summitt, the winningest collegiate basketball coach in NCAA Division I history. Throughout the 2004–05 season, Summitt’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors were video recorded during six practices. A total of 3,296 behaviors were observed and coded using the Arizona State University Observation Instrument (Lacy & Darst, 1984). Results indicated that 55% (n = 1810) of Summitt’s behaviors were directed toward the team, whereas 45% (n = 1,486) were directed toward individual players. The most frequent behavior was instruction (48%, n = 1,586) followed by praise (14.5%, n = 478) and hustle (10.7%, n = 351). Contrary to predictions, no differences were found in the quantity or quality of the coaching behaviors that Summitt directed toward high and low expectancy players.

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Wei-Ting Hsu and Min Pan

’ RISE. When an athlete believes that his or her teammates have high confidence in him or her (high RISE), the athlete will have stronger self-efficacy. A similar report showed that athletes take coaches’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors as the basis for RISE development and view RISE as the source of

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Colin G. Pennington, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Stefanie A. Wind

.1080/0360127820080308 10.1080/0360127820080308 Chaikin , A.L. , Gillen , B. , Derlega , V.J. , Heinen , J.R. , & Wilson , M. ( 1978 ). Students’ reactions to teachers’ physical attractiveness and nonverbal behavior: Two exploratory studies . Psychology in the Schools, 15 , 588 – 595 . Class , J

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Andy Gillham and Craig Stone

impact of nonverbal behavior in relation to team confidence, energy, and performance. More specifically, Seiler et al. ( 2018 ) noted that the effects of collective energy and cohesion remained largely due more to nonverbal behavior rather than performance information (e.g., objective identifiers as to

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E. Earlynn Lauer, Mark Lerman, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Larry Lauer

display positive body language and nonverbal behaviors immediately following a point. Recover and refocus were addressed first with the physical act of using a towel. All athletes were required to bring a small towel to each tennis practice and place it along the back curtain or fence. After each

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte and Russell T. Hurlburt

-talk is the fact that widely differing definitions of self-talk have been used ( Hardy, 2006 ), ranging from internal dialog ( Hackfort & Schwenkmezger, 1993 ) to any kind of thinking including visual imagery ( Bunker, Williams, & Zinsser, 1993 ), sometimes including nonverbal behavior such as a smile or

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Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen

Ambady , N. , & Rosenthal , R. ( 1993 ). Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64 ( 3 ), 431 – 441 . doi:10.1037/0022-3514.64.3.431 10.1037/0022-3514.64.3.431 Avolio , B

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

.00080.x 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2001.00080.x Matsumoto , D. , Olide , A. , Schug , J. , Willingham , B. , & Callan , M. ( 2009 ). Cross-cultural judgments of spontaneous facial expressions of emotion . Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 33 , 213 – 238 . doi:10.1007/s10919-009-0071-4 10.1007/s10919

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Chantelle Zimmer, Janice Causgrove Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

document perceptions of the children’s nonverbal behaviors and record salient topics, possible emerging themes, and questions to ask in the second interview. Data Analysis The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were given alphanumeric codes, and pseudonyms were used to ensure