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Paul Comfort, Thomas Dos’Santos, Paul A. Jones, John J. McMahon, Timothy J. Suchomel, Caleb Bazyler and Michael H. Stone

 al 14 demonstrated that changes in early force production and early RFD are influenced by increases in fascicle length in response to training, which may partly explain these differential adaptations in early and late force development. When comparing RFD normalized to isometric PF between athletes and

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Neal Wen, Joshua H. Guy, Nathan Elsworthy, Michele Lastella, David B. Pyne, Daniele Conte and Vincent J. Dalbo

measures derived from the IMTP with sprinting and jumping tests commonly used in adolescent basketball. There is a paucity of research examining the IMTP in adolescent basketball players. 5 To date, only correlations between dominant:nondominant ratios in normalized peak force production using unilateral

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

were collated for pacing strategy analysis of each race. UCI, cycling’s world governing body, requires timekeeping providers to adopt systems with 0.001-second accuracy. Mean racing speed from each lap was then percentage normalized to the mean speed of the whole race for each athlete. This procedure

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

, and growth hormone. Men become larger, with both more absolute and more relative muscle mass and a lower percentage of body fat, and have superior muscle strength and power, as well as both anaerobic and aerobic production of energy. Normalization for fat-free mass (an approximation of skeletal

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Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Christian Thiel, Bram Versteeg, Daniel A. Boullosa, Daniel Bok and John P. Porcari

results were blinded to individual identity. Performance times were expressed in minutes and seconds, allowing conversion into segment-by-segment velocity, which could be normalized for the mean velocity within an event and into the CV of velocity within an event. In an event in which a given athlete

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Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick

, fat, and protein in grams (g) and normalized to body mass. EA was computed in units of kJ/kg fat-free mass (FFM) based on Loucks et al. 3 Resting Metabolic Rate Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry (TrueOne 2400 Metabolic Measurement System; ParvoMedics, Murray, UT). All data

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Youri Geurkink, Gilles Vandewiele, Maarten Lievens, Filip de Turck, Femke Ongenae, Stijn P.J. Matthys, Jan Boone and Jan G. Bourgois

normalized importance (NI) value. The importance of each variable is a measure of the magnitude by which the model-predicted sRPE value is altered for various values of a variable. In our case, the NI was determined through the number of expressions of a variable in the created decision trees. Results The

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

, 1994 ). Changes to reproductive and metabolic hormones in FP athletes have been observed in the precompetition phase, including decreases in estradiol, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and leptin (Table  1 ). These hormones were normalized within 4–16 weeks postcompetition

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Tatiane Gorski, Thomas Rosser, Hans Hoppeler and Michael Vogt


To verify whether relative age effects (RAEs) occur among young male and female Swiss Alpine skiers of different age groups and performance levels. In addition, the efficacy of normalizing performance in physical tests to height and body mass to attenuate RAEs eventually present was tested.


The Swiss Ski Power Test consists of anthropometric measures and physical tests for coordination and speed, endurance, and strength and has been used since 2004 to evaluate 11- to 19-y-old Swiss competitive Alpine skiers. The authors analyzed the distribution of 6996 tests performed by 1438 male and 1031 female Alpine skiers between 2004 and 2011 according to the athletes’ respective relative age quartiles. Differences in anthropometric measures and performance in physical tests according to quartile were assessed, and the possibility of attenuating eventual RAEs on performance by normalization of results to height and body mass was tested.


RAEs were found among all female and male age groups, with no differences between age groups. While performance level did not affect RAE for male skiers, it influenced RAE among female skiers. RAEs also influenced results in all physical tests except upper-limb strength. Normalization of results to body mass attenuated most RAEs identified.


Small RAEs are present among young Swiss competitive Alpine skiers and should be taken into account in training and selection settings to prevent the waste of possible future talents. When ranking junior athletes according to their performance in physical tests, normalization of results to body mass decreases the bias caused by RAEs.

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Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet and Carl Payton

normalized to body mass. Fatigue index was the decline in mean tether force over the 30-second test. It was calculated from the gradient of mean tether force over the test duration as defined by linear regression and expressed as a percentage of the mean tether force in the first 5 seconds. 19 Statistical