to perform gender and sex in a myriad of ways, cultural expectations and social rewards encourage hegemonic representations which then normalize the heterosexual matrix. As Waldron ( 2016 ) expressed, “despite the fluidity of gender and sexuality through performative acts, repeated performances of
Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane
Jane Lee Sinden
The present study examines Foucault’s (1977) concept of normalization as it applies to the emotions of female elite amateur rowers. Specifically, this study sought to understand how beliefs about emotion, developed through the normalization process, may coerce athletes to continue to train even when physically unhealthy. Interviews were conducted with 11 retired elite amateur female rowers who suffered health problems while training but continued training despite these health problems. Interpretation of the data suggests that the rowers suppressed emotions to avoid appearing mentally weak, negative, or irrational, despite needing to express their concerns about training volumes and health issues to minimize deleterious effects that continued training eventually had on their health.
Guilherme M. Cesar, Rebecca Lewthwaite and Susan M. Sigward
-related differences in performance of athletic locomotor tasks have been observed between pre-pubertal children and young adults. During running and cutting tasks, children re-direct their momentum using larger impact forces (i.e., body weight-normalized ground reaction forces) than young adults ( Sigward, Pollard
Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire
. Consequently, female soccer referees may find it difficult to challenge the normalized patriarchal and masculinized structures and practices associated with both their position and sport culture, and thus adopt the esteemed gendered practices in order to be accepted and recognized just as other sportswomen
with their teammates. They evaluated this group setup positively and reported how they appreciated and felt relieved when they learned that they were not alone and that their teammates had similar difficulties. Sharing such experiences is an important part of the normalization process. The athletes
Jillian J. Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Victoria Farmer, Sheila Williams, Barbara Galland and Rachael Taylor
component unbroken). This means that there will be variation in day length and component variables must be normalized to sum to 24 hours. As part of this process, non-wear time is generally removed from the day before normalization ( Carson, Tremblay, & Chastin, 2017 ; Chastin et al., 2015 ; Dumuid
Christopher A. Bailey, Maxana Weiss and Julie N. Côté
lower limbs (Figure 1 ). This posture was the starting position for each trial. A cylinder (diameter = 6.5 cm; mass = 0.5 kg) was placed 40 cm from the front edge of the table, centered in front of the participant. The distance of the cylinder was normalized to each participant by measuring their
William W.N. Tsang and Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan
To determine whether older golfers have better static and dynamic balance control than older but nongolfing healthy adults.
Eleven golfers and 12 control participants (all male; 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 yr old, respectively) were recruited. Duration of static single-leg stance was timed. Control of body sway was assessed in single-leg stance during forward and backward platform perturbations. The lunge distance normalized with respect to each participant’s height was used to compare the 2 groups in a forward-lunge test.
Golfers maintained significantly longer duration in static single-leg stance. They achieved less anteroposterior body sway in perturbed single-leg stance and lunged significantly farther than did control participants.
The better static and dynamic balance control exhibited by older golfers possibly reflects the effects of weight transfers from repeated golf swings during weight shift from 2-leg to predominantly 1-leg stance and from walking on uneven fairways.
Siobhain McArdle, Phil Moore and Deirdre Lyons
Career pathways in high performance sport include a number of emotionally resonant transitions. Sport systems must be able to effectively support the athlete’s endeavors to negotiate such challenges. This study investigated qualitatively the experiences of Olympic athletes who took part in a three-tier, post-games career transition support program. The aim of the program was to increase athletes’ coping resources to successful negotiate the post-Olympic period. Ten athletes who participated in the program were recruited to participate in semi structured individual interviews. Directed content analysis was employed to identify key themes in the data. Athletes perceived two components of the program as particularly helpful, the normalization of the emotional and psychological challenge of the post Games period and the use of problem focused coping to redirect athlete focus to the future. The findings from this study provide a preliminary framework for the planning of future post-Games career transition support programs.
Olivier N. Schmid, Malayna Bernstein, Vanessa R. Shannon, Catherine Rishell and Catherine Griffith
Tennis has been identified as an ideal context for examining the dynamics of parenting and coaching relationships (Gould et al., 2008) but coaching dual-role relationships remain unexplored in this sport and related investigations only included volunteer coaches (Jowett, 2008; Harwood & Knight, 2012). An open-ended interview approach was used to examine how female tennis players previously coached by their fathers (professional coaches) before competing in college tennis perceived their experiences with the dual-role relationship and the coaching transition. A holistic narrative approach was used to reconstruct retrospectively the stories of the participants’ experiences and understand their development. Despite some beneficial aspects, a majority of participants emphasized their challenging experiences with regards to their needs to manage blurred boundaries, receive paternal approval, and endure their fathers’ controlling and abusive behaviors. Coaching transitions helped normalize father-daughter relationships and provided insight into the respective needs that were fulfilled through the dual-role relationships.