During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.
Bhupinder Singh, Thomas D. Brown, John J. Callaghan and H. John Yack
Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills
Pediatric obesity is considered a global epidemic, and the burden of excess mass has played an important role in the obese child’s inability to successfully perform functional movement tasks. Maintaining a stable posture is necessary for most activities of daily living; however, clinical measures
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima
An important change that occurs with advancing age includes fat mass accumulation; currently 35% of Americans aged over 60 years are classified as obese. 1 This number and related complications are expected to increase as the world’s population ages. It’s well documented that obesity is
Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn
Arya Mitra Sharma, MD, FRCPC, is Professor of Medicine at the University of Alberta and Medical Codirector of the Alberta Health Services Obesity Strategy. He is also the Scientific Director of the Canadian Obesity Network. Past appointments include positions as Professor of Medicine and Canada
J. Dru Marshall and Marcel Bouffard
The primary purpose of this study was to document the actual gross movement competencies, as measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development, in obese versus nonobese children. A 2 Gender (male, female) × 2 Groups (obese, nonobese) × 2 Age Categories (Grade 1, Grade 4) × 2 Programs (quality daily physical education [QDPE], non-QDPE) completely randomized factorial design was used. A significant three-way interaction effect (Group × Age × Program) was found for the Locomotor Skills subscale, such that the difference in movement competency in locomotor skills between obese and nonobese children increased as children got older if they did not receive QPDE. A significant main program effect was also found for the Object Control Skills subscale, with the QDPE children scoring higher than the non-QDPE children. It appears, then, that QDPE programs offer a “protective” effect for the development of locomotor skills in obese children. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Luke E. Kelly, James H. Rimmer and Richard A. Ness
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the percent body fat of 553 institutionalized mentally retarded adults, ages 18 to 40 yrs, from the Denton State School in Texas. The subjects included 343 males and 210 females. Their percent body fat was estimated with generalized regression equations. Body density for males was measured by the sum of three skinfolds, two girths, and age. Body density for females was measured by the sum of three skinfolds and age. The results from this study revealed that 45.2% of the males and 50.5% of the females were obese. The percent body fat of the female subjects was significantly greater than that of the male subjects. A post hoc analysis revealed that profoundly mentally retarded subjects had significantly lower percent body fat than those subjects functioning at the severe and mild levels. These findings indicate a serious need for more investigation of the caloric intake and expenditure of this population in an institutional environment.
Stephen P. Messier, Walter H. Ettinger Jr, Thomas E. Doyle, Timothy Morgan, Margaret K. James, Mary L. O'Toole and Robert Burns
The purpose of our study was to examine the association between obesity and gait mechanics in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects were 101 older adults (25 males and 76 females) with knee OA. High-speed video analysis and a force platform were used to record sagittal view lower extremity kinematic data and ground reaction forces. Increased body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to both decreases in walking velocity and knee maximum extension. There were no significant relationships between BMI and any of the hip or ankle kinematic variables. BMI was directly related to vertical force minimum and maximum values, vertical impulse, and loading rate. Increases in braking and propulsive forces were significantly correlated with increased BMI. Maximum medially and laterally directed ground reaction forces were positively correlated with BMI. Our results suggests that, in subjects with knee OA, obesity is associated with an alteration in gait.
Mollie G. DeLozier, Richard G. Israel, Kevin F. O’Brien, Robert A. Shaw and Walter J. Pories
This investigation quantified body composition and aerobic capacity and examined the interrelationships of these measures in 20 morbidly obese females (M age = 34.6 yrs) prior to gastric bypass surgery. Fifteen subjects were hydrostatically weighed at residual lung volume in order to determine body composition. Eighteen subjects performed a maximal modified progressive treadmill test to determine aerobic capacity. Results indicated that the 15 subjects who were weighed hydrostatically were heavier (M wt = 132.34 kg) and fatter (M % fat = 53.18) than any previously described individuals. Relative weight, which is used as a criterion to determine surgery eligibility, was not significantly (p > .05) correlated to percent body fat. Mean aerobic capacity (V̇O2 = 14.99 ml • kg-1 mir-1) was comparable to Class III cardiac patients and was limited by the individuals’ extreme body weight. Since relative weight was shown to be an insensitive measure of obesity, it is recommended that percent fat be measured and used as a means to determine eligibility for gastric bypass surgery. Further study of these individuals is warranted in order to determine what effects large weight loss following surgery will have on parameters of body composition and aerobic capacity. Understanding how large weight loss affects these parameters will aid in designing effective postsurgical exercise rehabilitative programs for future patients.
Enrique Alcántara, Arturo Forner, Elena Ferrús, Ana-Cruz García and José Ramiro
Impact mechanics of the human heel pad were studied using a ballistic pendulum. Young and elderly men and women took part in the experiment. Twelve parameters were used to describe heel pad properties. Analysis of variance was conducted to assess the influence of age, gender, and obesity. Heel pad properties were correlated with impact force and time to peak force in order to study impact mechanics. Maximal stiffness, peak displacement, and energy absorption were established so as to sufficiently describe impact properties of the heel pad. Age, gender, and obesity introduced significant differences in heel pad properties. Peak displacement and time to peak force increased in the elderly. Women presented a shorter time to peak force together with lower peak displacement, energy absorption, and lower maximal stiffness than men. Obese elderly showed lower impact forces, longer time to peak, and greater peak displacement than non-obese and younger participants. In addition, energy absorption was greater and maximal stiffness was lower for obese than for non-obese participants.
J. Dru Marshall and Marcel Bouffard
The purposes of the study were to determine if there is a difference in gross motor skill movement competencies between obese and nonobese children; whether Quality Daily Physical Education (QDPE) programs facilitated the development of movement skill in obese children; and whether there is an association between aerobic fitness level and motor performance results. A 2 Sex (male, female) × 2 Group (obese, nonobese) × 2 Age Categories (Grade 1, Grade 4) × 2 Program (QDPE, non-QDPE) completely randomized factorial design was used. Movement competency (Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD)) and aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run test) were assessed in 100 age-, sex-, and school-matched obese and nonobese pairs. A significant three-way interaction of Program × Group × Sex was found for the TGMD total score, suggesting that QDPE programs facilitate the development of gross motor skills in those children who are less movement competent to begin with, regardless of their obesity status. Correlations showed that aerobic fitness level was predictive of the TGMD scores. This study provides evidence in support of QDPE programs.