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Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman

Obesity has become a critical public health issue in the United States. From 2011 to 2014, the percentage of obesity was estimated to be 36.5% among US adults. 1 Obesity can lead to several chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. 2 Variations

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Elizabeth Chmelo, Barbara Nicklas, Cralen Davis, Gary D. Miller, Claudine Legault and Stephen Messier

Purpose:

To assess correlates of physical activity, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and physical functioning, in 160 older (66 ± 6 years old), overweight/obese (mean body mass index = 33.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2), sedentary (less than 30 mins of activity, 3 days a week) individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

Methods:

Physical activity was measured with accelerometers and by self-report. Physical function was assessed by 6-min walk distance, knee strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Pain and perceived function were measured by questionnaires. Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to analyze the relationships.

Results:

The mean number of steps taken per day was 6209 and the average PAEE was 237 ± 124 kcal/day. Participants engaged in 131 ± 39 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and 10.6 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MPA/VPA). Total steps/day, PAEE, and minutes of MPA/VPA were all negatively correlated with age. The 6-min walk distance and lower extremity function were better in those who had higher total steps/day, higher PAEE, higher minutes of MPA/VPA, and a higher PASE score.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that a population who has higher levels of spontaneous activity have better overall physical function than those who engage in less activity.

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Ashley A. Fenner, Erin K. Howie, Leon M. Straker and Martin S. Hagger

The current study explored whether a multidisciplinary family-based intervention underpinned by self-determination theory could enhance perceptions of parent need support, autonomous motivation, and quality of life in overweight and obese adolescents. Using a staggered-entry waitlist-period control design, adolescents (n = 56) were assessed at baseline and preintervention (within-participant control), immediately following intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-ups. Parents were trained in need-supportive behaviors within the broader context of an 8-week multidisciplinary intervention attended jointly with adolescents. Following intervention, significant improvements were demonstrated in adolescent perceptions of parent need support, autonomous motivation, and quality of life, and changes were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. Mediation analyses revealed changes in perceptions of parent need support predicted changes in quality of life indirectly via changes in autonomous motivation. Findings suggest overweight and obese adolescents are likely to benefit from multidisciplinary family-based interventions that aim to train parents in need-supportive behaviors.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

In the United States, approximately one in three adults are classified as obese ( Flegal, Kruszon-Moran, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2016 ), defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m 2 . These numbers are even higher among women, with 40.4% of American women being classified as

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

center of the pressure pathway of normal and flat feet were compared when crossing-obstacles of varying heights ( Han et al., 2015 ). Plantar pressure distribution in stroke patients ( Park et al., 2010 ) and middle-aged obese women ( Jung et al., 2011 ) were also evaluated when walking over obstacles of

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

Overweight and obese children have now become a public health problem both in European countries and in other developed countries ( Ahrens et al., 2014 ). Lobstein et al. ( 2015 ) have shown that in about 30 years in the United States, the body mass of each child has increased by 5 kg on average

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

Obesity and associated chronic disease have increased at rapidly alarming rates over the last few decades. 1 More recently, researchers have also observed the negative impacts of obesity on psychological health and well-being, as obese people are more susceptible to an emotional disorder, social

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang

Obesity, a major public health problem worldwide, has been demonstrated to be associated with risks for numerous cognitive deficiencies, including deficiencies in executive functioning, attention, and visuospatial performance ( Liang, Matheson, Kaye, & Boutelle, 2014 ), as well as poor academic

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James A. Levine

The know-how is available to reverse the obesity epidemic. Reversing obesity is a societal necessity because it is the predominant contributor to chronic ill health in developed countries and a growing precipitant of illness in middle and low-income countries. In the United States, for example, obesity is the chief driver of health care costs in a country that can no longer afford health care. Although some might advocate population-wide medication use to mitigate the effects of obesity on health, the more direct response is to end obesity. The goal of this paper is explain how mass-scalable obesity containment can be designed, built, and disseminated. Scalable Obesity Solutions (S.O.S.) are discussed from concept through deployment.

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Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson

Despite the known benefits of physical activity, less than 50% of children in the United States meet the national physical activity recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. 1 Overweight/obese (OW/OB) children fare even worse with only 20%–40% meeting the