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William L. Haskell

This symposium addressed the ongoing development of new technologies for the objective measurement of physical activity and diet and efforts to provide best practice guidelines for scientists developing, evaluating and using existing and new technologies for the objective measurement of physical activity. The research projects discussed and the workshop overview presented are components of the Genes, Environment, and Health Initiative (GEI) of the National Institutes of Health. The rationale, plans and progress of the GEI physical activity and diet initiative were presented. Detailed presentations described 2 projects focused on the use of mobile phone based systems designed to collect, process and store data; 1 uses multiple wireless accelerometers to detect body movement and the other uses a camera built into a mobile phone and advanced software to quantify dietary intake. Given the rapid development of new accelerometer-based physical activity measurement devices and analytical approaches, it is important that best practices be used by scientists and practitioners using theses devices. An overview of a “best practices” workshop held in July 2009 was presented. The presentations and discussions during this symposium made evident the progress, potential and challenges of implementing advanced technologies to enhance the measurement of physical activity and diet.

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Miguel Ángel de la Cámara, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, David Martinez-Gomez and Óscar L. Veiga

education, or measurement day. In the same way, a previous study that analyzed moderator effects of sex on interday reliability using objective measurement did not find differences ( Tudor-Locke et al., 2005 ). Measurement days constitute an important factor to consider when PA is evaluated by objective

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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Andreas Holtermann, Allard J. van der Beek, Maaike A. Huysmans, Svend Erik Mathiassen and Leon Straker

in 2011 36 with the majority published over the last 3 years (ie, 2015–2018). 20 – 35 , 37 , 38 Twelve studies were located in Denmark, 23 – 34 all but one 22 accessing 2 large national data sets (ie, New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living [NOMAD], Danish

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Miguel A. de la Cámara, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, Kabir P. Sadarangani, David Martinez-Gomez and Óscar L. Veiga

well as low precision, error, and bias. 17 It has been observed that they generally underestimate sedentary time in comparison with accelerometer data (>2 h/d), 18 – 25 showing weak to moderate correlations when they are compared with objective measurements. 18 – 21 , 25 The Global Physical Activity

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Carla Elane Silva dos Santos, Sofia Wolker Manta, Guilherme Pereira Maximiano, Susana Cararo Confortin, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Eleonora d’Orsi and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

Background: To examine the level of physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB), measured with accelerometers, in older adults from a city in southern Brazil according to sociodemographic and health characteristics. Methods: The sample consisted of 425 older adults (≥63 y) from the EpiFloripa Aging Study. Light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and SB were measured with accelerometers over a period of 7 days. Results: The older adults spent two-thirds of the time of use in SB, one-third in LPA, and only 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.8–2.2) in MVPA. In the final adjusted model, lower levels of MVPA were observed for women, as well as higher SB and lower LPA and MVPA for those with higher age. There were also trends toward prolonged SB and lower LPA when participants had a higher educational level and toward lower MVPA with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Constant monitoring of physical activity levels and SB using objective measures is recommended and interventions should be directed at the groups most exposed to excessive SB and low levels of MVPA.

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Philippa M. Dall, Dawn A. Skelton, Manon L. Dontje, Elaine H. Coulter, Sally Stewart, Simon R. Cox, Richard J. Shaw, Iva Čukić, Claire F. Fitzsimons, Carolyn A. Greig, Malcolm H. Granat, Geoff Der, Ian J. Deary, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and On behalf of the Seniors USP Team

different constructs of physical behaviors compared with objective monitors ( Troiano, McClain, Brychta, & Chen, 2014 ). Using objective measurement of PA and SB in large-scale studies incurs practical and pragmatic challenges, different from the use of self-report, and often requires informed decisional

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José I. Recio-Rodríguez, Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Vicente Martinez-Vizcaino, Carlos Martin-Cantera, Maria C. Patino-Alonso, Jose A. Maderuelo-Fernandez, Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Ortiz and for the EVIDENT Group

This study determined the relationship between self-reported and objective measurements of physical activity with adiposity markers in a random sample of community-dwelling older adults. The sample included 439 individuals over 65 years (age 71.1 ± 7.8; 54.2% women). Regular physical activity information was collected using self-reported (questionnaire, 7-day-PAR) and objective measurements (accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days. Anthropometric parameters included body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. The number of patients considered active was 28% according to the results of 7-day PAR, and 69% according to objective measures of accelerometry. With every daily increase of 10 min of sedentary activity, the BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference values increased by 0.04 units, 0.14%, and 0.14 cm, respectively. According to the accelerometry data, being active was a protective factor for presenting obesity criteria (OR = 0.34, CI 95% 0.19–0.59). Objective but non self-reported physical activity was associated with adiposity markers in older adults.

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Yvonne Michael, Tracey Beard, Dongseok Choi, Stephanie Farquhar and Nichole Carlson

There is a need for greater understanding of how perceptions and objective measures of the physical environment influence physical activity among seniors. The goal of this study was to examine the degree of association between perceived and objective characteristics of the neighborhood environment and the relation of each type of measurement to neighborhood walking in older adults. Data on self-reported frequency of walking in the neighborhood and perceived measures of neighborhood environment from 105 older adults were linked to objective measures assessed by geographic information systems and an audit instrument. Perceived and objective measurements of the built environment exhibited a low degree of agreement (kappas: <.20). After adjustment for education, age, and gender, presence of a mall was positively associated with neighborhood walking in both the objective and perceived models.

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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt

This study examined the (mis)match between children’s perceived and actual motor skill competence, the role played by sport practice and gender when children under- or overestimate their motor competence, and the biomechanical correlates of perceived competence and perceived–actual competence (mis)match. Ninety children aged 7.5±1.2 years performed the Tests of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2), with a subsample of 44 children wearing inertial sensor devices for objective measurement of running and throwing, and completed the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Scores of perceived locomotor and object control competence were regressed on TGMD data. Underestimators (UE), realists (R), and overestimators (OE) were identified and it was assessed whether they differed in gender, amount of sport practice, and selected biomechanical parameters. Differences emerged with respect to gender, with most girls underestimating and most boys overestimating their object control competence, and with respect to sport participation, with OE of locomotor competence practicing a larger amount of sport than UE. Some kinematic parameters were associated with perceived competence without differences between UE, R, and OE. Results suggest: (a) the need for specific motivation strategies to ensure a skill-appropriate enhancement of perceived competence in girls; (b) the relevance of feeling skilled for sport practice; (c) the added value of biomechanical assessment to further our understanding of perceived motor competence.

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Sze Yen Tan, Marijka Batterham and Linda Tapsell

Background:

Knowing the total energy expenditure (TEE) of overweight adults is important for prescribing weight loss interventions. However, objective measurements of TEE may not always be readily available and can be expensive. This study aimed to investigate the validity of RT3 accelerometers in predicting the TEE of sedentary overweight adults, and to identify any sensitivity to anthropometric changes.

Methods:

The analysis used data from a 12-week weight loss study. At baseline and 12-week, TEE was predicted using RT3 accelerometers during whole room calorimeter stays. Bias between 2 methods was compared at and between the baseline and 12-week measurement points. Multiple regression analyses of TEE data were conducted.

Results:

Predicted and measured values for TEE were not different at baseline (P = .677) but were significantly different after weight loss (P = .007). However, the mean bias between methods was small (<100 kcal/d) and was not significantly different between 2 time-points. RT3 activity counts explained an additional 2% of the variation in TEE at 12-week but not at baseline.

Conclusion:

RT3 accelerometers are not sensitive to body composition changes and do not explain variation in TEE of overweight and obese individuals in a sedentary environment.