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Jefferson Fagundes Loss, Edgar Santiago Wagner Neto, Tatiane Borsoi de Siqueira, Aline Dill Winck, Laura Silveira de Moura and Luiz Carlos Gertz

Trunk-flexor muscle strength plays a fundamental role in athletic performance, but objective measurements are usually obtained using expensive and nonportable equipment, such as isokinetic dynamometers. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of a portable, one-dimensional, trunk-flexor muscle strength measurement system (Measurement System) that uses calibrated barbells and the reliability of the measurements obtained using the Measurement System, by conducting test–retests. As a complementary assessment, the measurements obtained during a maximum contraction test performed by a group of 15 subjects were also recorded. Four conditions were assessed: repeatability, time reproducibility, position reproducibility, and subject reproducibility. The results demonstrate that both the concurrent validity and the measured reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .98) of the Measurement System are acceptable. The Measurement System provides valid and reliable measures of trunk-flexor muscle strength.

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

Context: Lower back pain is prevalent in horse riders as a result of the absorption of repetitive and multiplanar propulsive forces from the horse. Global positioning system technology provides potential for in vivo measurement of planar loading during riding. Objective: To quantify the uniaxial loading at the lumbar and cervicothoracic spine during dressage elements. Design: Repeated measures, randomized order. Setting: Equestrian arena. Patients (or Other Participants): Twenty-one female dressage riders. Intervention(s): Each rider completed walk, rising trot, sitting trot, and canter trials in a randomized order. A global positioning system unit was placed within customized garments at C7 and L5, collecting triaxial accelerometry data at 100 Hz. Outcome Measures: PlayerLoad based on the rate of change of acceleration and calculated in the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral, and vertical planes during each trial. Results: There was no significant main effect for global positioning system location in the AP (P = .76), mediolateral (P = .88), or vertical (P = .76) planes. There was a significant main effect for pace in all trials (P < .001), with successive elements eliciting significantly greater loading (P ≤ .03) in all planes in the order walk < rising trot < canter < sitting trot. There was a significant placement × element interaction only in the AP plane (P = .03) with AP loading greater at L5 during walk, rising trot, and canter trials, but greater at C7 during sitting trot. Conclusions: The significant main effect for dressage element was indicative of greater pace of the horse, with faster pace activities eliciting greater loading in all planes. In vivo measurement of spinal accelerometry has application in the objective measurement and subsequent management of lumbar load for riders.

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Harsimran S. Baweja and Daniel J. Goble

concussion balance testing is the objective measurement of body sway control via a force plate device. A more sophisticated approach to concussion balance testing is the objective measurement of body sway control via a force plate device. Force plate technology is generally considered the “gold standard” for

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Daniele Coraci, Silvia Giovannini, Giulia Piccinini, Claudia Loreti, Valter Santilli and Luca Padua

important topic of the article by Contemori and colleagues is the diagnostic and evaluation approach of the disease. The authors completed clinical evaluation with objective measurements. The diagnostic instruments are useful to amplify physicians’ evaluation capability and quantify minimal parameter

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Shelly L. Massingale, Amy D. Alexander, Steven M. Erickson, Elizabeth S. McQueary, Richard D. Gerkin, Sarah B. Schodrof, Haroon M. Kisana and Jamie E. Pardini

Key Points ▸ COBALT is a high-level balance test designed for athletes ages 10–18. ▸ COBALT includes both active head shake and visual motion sensitivity tasks. ▸ Error and sway scores provide objective measurement of balance. Traditional management of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury

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Richard A. Brindle, David Ebaugh and Clare E. Milner

strength test. 5 Thus, we suggest using the MDD values from the present study with a general population. Objective measurements should quantify the intended construct to be valid and useful for clinical decision making. For a measurement of eccentric muscle strength to be valid, it must quantify muscle

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Neal R. Glaviano and Susan Saliba

multifactorial, supporting the need to evaluate patient impairments when developing a treatment plan. The subjective and objective measurements provide essential information that clinicians can use to identify groups that may respond more positively in a specific intervention program. This theory is supported by

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

lighting levels in postconcussion syndrome. 22 Symptoms like these that have an objective measurement may be valuable in that they may correlate better with the underlying dysfunctions that are responsible for them. The pattern of symptoms may evolve over successive concussions and provide clues to

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Gabrielle Stubblefield, Jeffrey Tilly and Kathy Liu

. Future research examining the comparison of an acute injury to baseline measurements should also include subjective and other objective measurements. Other subjective data should include a questionnaire such as the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, 15 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, 16 and a pain

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Kristina L. Dunn, R. Curtis Bay, Javier F. Cárdenas, Matthew Anastasi, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Richelle M. Williams

that are affordable and easily completed in the clinical setting or on the athletic field. Development of the Sway Balance™ mobile application allows for improved objective measurements of postural control in the field setting. The use of this application on multiple devices during preparticipation