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Tzu Chuan Yen, Nima Toosizadeh, Carol Howe, Michael Dohm, Jane Mohler and Bijan Najafi

Balance assessments could render useful objective performance measures to evaluate the efficacy of low back surgeries, yet these assessments have not been collectively examined to determine longitudinal sensitivity across surgical interventions. The purpose of this review was to determine sensitivity of balance measurements for disparate spinal disorders after surgical intervention. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Articles were selected based on: (1) sample consisted of low back disorder individuals and (2) balance measurements were obtained both pre- and postsurgery. Most of the articles addressed 2 specific low back disorders: (1) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis/spinal fusion and (2) disc herniation/decompression surgery. For scoliosis patients, body sway increased (14–97%) immediately following surgery but gradually reduced (1–33%) approaching the 1-year post spinal fusion assessment. For patients with disc herniation, sway range, sway velocity, sway area, and sway variability all decreased (19–42%) immediately postsurgery. Balance assessments for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgical intervention should be performed with visual occlusion, focus on time domain parameters, and evaluated with longer follow-up times. Patients with disc herniation who underwent decompression surgery should have balance assessments with visual deprivation, test conditions specifically addressing hip strategy, and correlation with pain.

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Cynthia J. Wright, Nico G. Silva, Erik E. Swartz and Brent L. Arnold

-assessment (e.g., the use of objective performance measures, comparison to normative data) may be useful in countering this phenomenon. Future Research on Skill Acquisition Removal of a football helmet facemask is a discrete skill required as part of athletic training educational competencies. Yet, data

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Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling

discussion in sport psychology. Concerns has been raised that objective performance measures may be affected by a number of uncontrollable factors in the environment which can threaten the validity of the measure ( Thelwell, Greenlees, & Weston, 2006 ). It is true, especially in team sports such as ice

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Edson Filho

tasks ( Basevitch et al., 2011 ; Filho et al., 2016 ). Performance The objective performance measure was the amount of time juggling, rounded to the nearest second. Specifically, the jugglers were asked to keep the balls in the air for 30 s or as long as they could, consistent with previous research on