work with physical educators who are unsupportive and may unknowingly employ exclusionary teaching practices ( Haegele & Zhu, 2017 ). Thus, the purpose of this study was to extend the research on the socialization of PE teachers by examining the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS
K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele
Shirley S.M. Fong, Joanne W.Y. Chung, Shamay S.M. Ng, Ada W.W. Ma, Lina P.Y. Chow and William W.N. Tsang
This study compared the sensory organization and standing balance of adolescent tennis players, taekwondo (TKD) practitioners, and healthy control participants. Sixty participants including 12 tennis players, 21 TKD practitioners, and 27 healthy control participants were tested. All of the participants underwent the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Unilateral Stance Test (UST) on a Smart Equitest system. Results revealed that tennis players had higher SOT visual ratios than the control participants (p = .005), and TKD practitioners swayed more slowly in the UST than the control participants (p = .039). No differences (p > .05) were found in the composite score, somatosensory ratio, or vestibular ratio between the groups. Tennis players swayed less when they relied more on visual input to maintain balance, whereas TKD practitioners were more stable when standing on one leg. Parents may consider these sports as recreational activities for their children to develop specific balance abilities.
Eric Yiou, Manon Gendre, Thomas Deroche and Serge Le Bozec
This study examined how pleasant and unpleasant emotional states influence the biomechanical organization of both forward and backward step initiation (SI). Participants (N = 31) purposely took a single step toward or away from a screen following the presentation of a pleasant (erotic), unpleasant (mutilation) or neutral (objects and landscapes) image. The main results showed that the reaction time for forward SI was shortened when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with unpleasant pictures. The anticipatory whole-body center-ofmass velocity associated with backward SI, as well as the peak of center-of-mass velocity associated with forward SI both reached lower values when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with neutral pictures. In contrast, unpleasant pictures did not significantly induce any change in the forward or backward SI parameters. Overall, these results obtained for whole-body approach/avoidance-like behaviors provided mitigated support for the so-called “motivational direction hypothesis.”
Marit Sørensen and Nina Kahrs
The Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports’ commitment to integrate disability sport in the sport organizations for the able-bodied was evaluated based upon a description of an ideal, inclusive sports organization. Data were collected primarily through interviews and questionnaires. The results indicate that the integration process proceeded more slowly than originally intended. There were still unresolved matters on the structural/organizational level, and the sports federations’ officials were uncertain about the extent of their responsibility and the role of the new sports organization for persons with a disability. More relevant competence was needed in the organization. All organizations reported improved attitudes toward individuals with a disability and indicated that integration was a demanding enterprise.
Yusuke Tabei, David Fletcher and Kate Goodger
This study investigated the relationship between organizational stressors in sport and athlete burnout and involved a cross-cultural comparison of English and Japanese soccer players. Ninety-eight male players completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2001) to determine levels of perceived burnout. Based on data reported in previous research, and the thresholds developed by Hodge, Lonsdale, and Ng (2008), 22 of the players were identified as exhibiting higher levels of perceived burnout. Nine members of this subsample (4 English and 5 Japanese players) were subsequently interviewed to explore the relationship between their experiences of burnout and the organizational stressors they encountered. Results revealed multiple demands linked to the dimensions of athlete burnout and identified specific organizational-related issues that players associated with the incidence of burnout. Cultural differences between English and Japanese players in terms of the prevalence and organizational stressors associated with burnout were also identified, with the main differences being the relationship with senior teammates and the coaching style.
Stefania Marin and Marianne Pouplier
This study systematically investigates the temporal organization of American English onset and coda consonant clusters on the basis of kinematic data. Results from seven speakers suggest that consonants in complex onsets are organized globally with respect to the following vowel, while consonants in complex codas are organized locally relative to the preceding vowel. These results support the competitive coupling model hypothesized for complex onsets, a model according to which consonant gestures in onsets are each coupled in-phase to the vowel, and antiphase with each other. The results are overall also consistent with the noncompetitive coupling relations assumed for codas, by which only the first consonant in a cluster is coupled antiphase with the vowel, and any subsequent consonants are coupled antiphase to each other. However, our data also show that the segmental composition of the cluster affects the timing relationship in codas, particularly /lC/ coda clusters pattern differently from other clusters and do not adhere to the predicted timing relations. The data contribute to our understanding of the interaction of linguistic structure and motor control of the articulators in speech production.
Faye F. Didymus and David Fletcher
This study investigated sport performers’ coping strategies in response to organizational stressors, examined the utility of Skinner, Edge, Altman, and Sherwood’s (2003) categorization of coping within a sport context, determined the short-term perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies used, and explored appraisal-coping associations. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semistructured, interval-contingent diaries every day for 28 days. Results revealed 78 coping strategies, which supported 10 of Skinner et al.’s (2003) families of coping. Twenty-four different combinations of coping families were identified. The perceived most effective coping family used in isolation was self-reliance and in combination was escape and negotiation. Stressful appraisals were associated with varied coping strategies. The results highlight the complexity of coping and point to the importance of appraisal-coping associations. Skinner et al.’s (2003) categorization of coping provides a promising conceptual framework for the development of coping research in sport.
Eric Yiou and Manh-Cuong Do
This study examined how the central nervous system organizes mediolateral (ML) “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APAs) for stepping initiation (SI) to take into account the postural perturbation induced by voluntary lateral arm raising. Subjects purposely stepped in isolation (“isolated stepping”) or in combination with lateral raising of dominant arm (“motor sequence”). SI was carried out with the leg ipsilateral or controlateral to raising arm. Results showed that APA amplitude increased from “ipsilateral isolated stepping” to “ipsilateral sequence”, but did not change in conditions involving controlateral leg; ML instability increased from “ipsilateral isolated stepping” to “ipsilateral sequence”, but decreased from “controlateral isolated stepping” to “controlateral sequence”. These changes were exacerbated when inertia was added at the hand during raising. These results suggest that APAs for SI are globally scaled as a function of the biomechanical consequences of forthcoming arm movement on ML postural stability.
E.V. Biryukova and B. Bril
We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest “ultimate” skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill—the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement.