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Paolo Menaspà, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin and Chris R. Abbiss


To determine the consistency of commercially available devices used for measuring elevation gain in outdoor activities and sports.


Two separate observational validation studies were conducted. Garmin (Forerunner 310XT, Edge 500, Edge 750, and Edge 800; with and without elevation correction) and SRM (Power Control 7) devices were used to measure total elevation gain (TEG) over a 15.7-km mountain climb performed on 6 separate occasions (6 devices; study 1) and during a 138-km cycling event (164 devices; study 2).


TEG was significantly different between the Garmin and SRM devices (P < .05). The between-devices variability in TEG was lower when measured with the SRM than with the Garmin devices (study 1: 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively). The use of the Garmin elevation-correction option resulted in a 5–10% increase in the TEG.


While measurements of TEG were relatively consistent within each brand, the measurements differed between the SRM and Garmin devices by as much as 3%. Caution should be taken when comparing elevation-gain data recorded with different settings or with devices of different brands.

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Dean A. Zoerink

The purpose of this exploratory study was to inquire about the childhood and adolescent social and recreational experiences of adult males having congenital orthopedic disabilities, those having acquired orthopedic disabilities, and those who were able-bodied. An interview method using a prepared questionnaire was employed to collect data from 173 men, of whom 53 had congenital disabilities, 60 had acquired disabilities, and 60 were able-bodied. They ranged in age from 20 to 40 years. The analyses, using the chi-square statistic at p = .001, revealed that men with congenital disabilities differed from each of the other two groups with respect to memories of childhood social and recreational opportunities. They recalled having had more or about the same number of childhood opportunities to play with friends, be involved in active games and in outdoor activities, and play at friends’ homes. Subjects with congenital disabilities, in contrast to the others, also recalled as adolescents having had more or about the same number of opportunities to participate in active games and go to friends’ homes.

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Kassi A. Boyd and Donna L. Goodwin

wide variety of indoor and outdoor activities such as bike/scooter riding, walks, playing at playgrounds and indoor play places, swimming at pools and water parks, tobogganing, and free play in open green spaces. They further enjoyed attending city events and attractions such as parades, festivals

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

intense enough, at least by my standards. But, then again, I am never satisfied. Our outdoor activity consisted of walking around the outdoor track, which is nice when the weather is nice, but I would have liked some more running. When I consulted with my sighted peers, I learned that their curriculum was