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Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik and Susan Levenstein


Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.


To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.


Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.


9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.


24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.


There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).


Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

effects of overreaching and overtraining on injury. 36 Inadequate recovery periods can lead to overtraining, prolonged maladaptation in the musculoskeletal structures, and an increased risk of injury. Therefore, a longitudinal research design with large data sets that evaluates runners throughout a

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

of “overreaching” ( Saw et al., 2016 ), “overtraining” ( Borresen & Lambert, 2009 ), injuries, and illness ( Drew & Finch, 2016 ; Gabbett et al., 2014 ; Saw et al., 2016 ). In the case of wheelchair sports, research has been limited and much of what is known about monitoring of training loads comes

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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis

study, flotation REST may be best suited for enhancing recovery between performances. That is, individuals may cope with and prepare for emotions arising during competition or work situations in a state of deep relaxation, and thereby prevent negative states such as overreaching, overtraining syndrome