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David N. Ellis, Pamela J. Cress and Charles R. Spellman

This report describes an effort to train adolescents and young adults with mental retardation to modify their rates of pedaling exercycles during 10-min self-paced exercise sessions in a public school setting using commercially available heart rate (HR) monitors. A signal sounded when participants’ heart rates fell outside their predetermined cardiorespiratory conditioning ranges. During Study 1 most participants consistently avoided the alarm by pedaling at rates that maintained their HRs above their criterion levels. Study 2 included a more intensive warm-up period on the treadmill. All subjects but one consistently responded to the signal, maintaining HRs within the criterion range. Two of the participants in Study 2 were exposed to a positive reinforcement condition, with music contingent on maintaining HRs above a preset lower limit. Two subjects participated in maintenance phases and continued to exhibit relatively high HRs during exercise in the absence of signals from the HR monitor.

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Karen Kunde and James H. Rimmer

The purpose was to compare heart rates and completion times of adults with MR after performing a 1-mi walk test with and without a pacer. Fifteen participants (8 males, 7 females) with mild or moderate mental retardation (M age = 38.8 years ± 10.2) performed the test a minimum of two times with a pacer and two times without a pacer. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between genders; thus data were combined for further analysis. Intraclass reliability coefficients (R) for walk time with a pacer, walk time without a pacer, heart rate with a pacer, and heart rate without a pacer were .99, .99, .91, and .95, respectively. Results indicated that the average walk times for the pacer and no pacer conditions were significantly different, t (14) = 3.11, p = .008. The pacer condition resulted in a faster average walk time by approximately 1 min; however, there was no significant difference between conditions on heart rate. Therefore, it is recommended that, when having adults with MR perform a walk test, a pacer should be used to assure maximum performance.

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Nancy Getchell, Samuel J. Mackenzie and Adam R. Marmon

This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores > 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 ± 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC ≤ 15th percentile (D_LOW, n = 15; mean age 10.43 ± 1.8 years), and typically developing (TD, n = 18; mean age 10.64 ± 1.8 years). Participants clapped and walked simultaneously for 3 pretest trials, completed 16 trials with auditory pacing, and 3 posttest trials without pacing. D_LOW differed significantly from D_HIGH and TD in mean relative phase (MRP) of the clap relative to the step, and variability (VRP) of the MRP. Significant differences also existed between pretest blocks and all other blocks in MRP. The results suggest that a short-term auditory pacing may be effective in improving MRP in all children. Further, there may be subtypes of dyslexia wherein children have more profound coordination difficulties and may preferentially change dual motor task performance with auditory pacing.

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Candice Martin, Benita Olivier and Natalie Benjamin


The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been found to be a valid preparticipation screening tool in the prediction of injury among various athletes in different sports. The validity thereof in the prediction of injury among adolescent cricketers is yet to be established.


To determine if a preseason FMS total score is a valid predictor of in-season injury among adolescent pace bowlers.


Prospective observational quantitative study.


Bowlers performed the FMS before the start of the season. Injury incidence was monitored monthly throughout the season. The student t test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the FMS scores of the injured and noninjured bowlers as well as the injured and noninjured bowlers who scored ≤ 14.


27 injury-free, male, adolescent pace bowlers.

Main Outcome Measures:

The FMS (scoring criteria and score sheet) and standardized self-administered injury questionnaire.


There was no difference between the noninjured group (16.55 ± 2.57) and the injured (16.1 ± 2.07) group in terms of FMS scores. There was no significant difference between injured and noninjured bowlers who scored ≤ 14. A total FMS score of 14 does not provide the sensitivity needed to assess injury risk among adolescent pace bowlers and no other accurate cut-off score could be calculated.


Preseason observed total FMS score is a poor predictor of in-season injury among adolescent pace bowlers. Further research should be conducted to determine if a specific FMS test will be a more valid predictor of injury.

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Nancy Getchell, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden and Samuel W. Logan

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of auditory pacing on period stability and temporal consistency of a dual motor task in children with and without dyslexia and with varying amounts of motor deficiency. Fifty-four children were divided into groups based on dyslexia diagnosis and score on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Participants performed a dual motor task (clapping while walking) at a self-determined pace in a pretest block, practiced 4 blocks of 4 trials with a metronome pacing signal, and finished with a posttest block without auditory pacing. Measures of period stability (interclap/interheel strike intervals across trial blocks) and temporal consistency (coefficient of variation of period with trials) were taken. The results suggest that auditory pacing may improve period stability across groups, but does not appear to impact temporal consistency. Weak support existed for a general impairment of motor function in children diagnosed with dyslexia.

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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

, Breniere, & Brenguier, 1982 ; Do, Schneider, & Chong, 1999 ) may offer novel insights into how aging affects postural control and stepping function. Specifically, variable pacing as a temporal constraint to rhythmic stepping with a single lower limb would allow for the manipulation of the time to complete

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Elizabeth L. Stegemöller, Joshua R. Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates and Andrew Zaman

were instructed to “tap your index finger along with the provided beat” on their dominant hand. Metronome clicks were inserted in the two music conditions to ensure participants were tapping in time to the same beat as the tone alone. Two pacing rates (140 or 70 bpm) were presented for each condition

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Melissa G. Hunt, James Rushton, Elyse Shenberger and Sarah Murayama

stress ( Paul, Elam, & Verhulst, 2007 ). Thus, DB may be a strategy that would be useful to college athletes in managing stress effectively ( Kudlackova, Eccles, & Dieffenbach, 2013 ; Omoluabi, 1994 ). Some studies have shown that simple paced breathing can also achieve positive effects on physiological

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Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor and Michael Pierrynowski

for different categories of movement. In the present study, explicit temporal precision was the primary movement goal. We were interested in whether children and adults differ in their ability to maintain consistent repetitive reaching during paced and unpaced trials in a synchronization

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

self-paced treadmill in middle-aged and older persons with MS, as a means of increasing the balance demands of the task while providing flexibility in the selected gait speed and stride length. The VBW is expected to increase the cognitive demand of walking, as it requires attention to control each leg