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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

; Quehl et al., 1999 ). The goal of education was to complete a curriculum (which interestingly stems from a Latin word meaning “a race” or “racecourse”) and to earn a diploma or degree. At that time, the instruction paradigm took hold of North American higher education ( Tagg, 2003 ). Grounded in

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Maureen R. Weiss

-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

Background Modulation of Intracortical Connectivity Current non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), focus on changing behaviors through up or down regulation of a single cortical region

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Mark S. Tremblay

the field of time-use epidemiology, an example of which is compositional analyses of 24-hour movement guidelines. Recent Guideline Developments Commensurate with the rapidly emerging evidence supporting the 24-hour guideline paradigm, several jurisdictions have developed public health guidelines

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Paul R. Geisler and Todd Lazenby

Clinical practice in sports medicine is often guided by axioms or paradigms of practice, some of which have persisted over time despite a lack of objective evidence to support their validity. Evidence-based practice compels practicing clinicians to not only seek out and produce evidence that informs their decision-making, but also to challenge existing paradigms of thought and practice, especially when favorable treatment outcomes remain elusive. Insidious, load induced lateral knee pain around the iliotibial band in runners, cyclists, military personnel, rowers, and other athletes has for decades now been conceptualized as iliotibial band friction syndrome, a biomechanically based and unsubstantiated paradigm based on Renne’s 1975 theory that the iliotibial band slips back and forth over the lateral femoral epicondyle during flexion and extension movements of the knee, primarily irritating the underlying bursa and even the iliotibial band itself. Newer evidence about the anatomy and biomechanics of the iliotibial band, the physiology of the condition, and interventional outcomes is now available to challenge that long-held paradigm of thought for iliotibial band related pathology. Given this plethora of new information available for clinical scientists, iliotibial band impingement syndrome is proposed here as a new, evidence-informed paradigm for evaluating and treating this problematic overuse syndrome.

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Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert

This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.

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Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge

There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

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Andrew C. Sparkes

This paper attempts to extend the boundaries of the paradigm debate by focusing on the textual construction of realities. In doing so, it is concerned to enhance the possibilities of critical dialogue within the research community so that understanding might prevail. Insights from poststructuralism are provided to illuminate the manner in which different paradigms utilize various discourses and rhetorics to persuade the reader of the legitimacy of their findings. It is suggested that researchers be encouraged to become active readers and engage in the criticism of texts so that their involvement in producing texts may be viewed as literary enterprises. The development of such a critical and reflective self-awareness regarding their own stylistic conventions and the manner in which these express specific taken-for-granted paradigmatic assumptions are taken to be vital first steps in opening up the possibilities for entertaining alternative views and exploring the intellectual landscape of others. The difficulties of this task are outlined in relation to the political economy of truth and the manner in which power operates to prevent polyvocality in the marketplace of ideas.

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Kay W. Maas and Cynthia A. Hasbrook

Golf is described as elitist, racist, and sexist. Recently it has become clear that golf is also able-bodiest. Casey Martin, a young, upper class, white, male golfer with a physical disability, was featured in the media for challenging the Professional Golf Association (PGA) rules prohibiting use of a golf cart during tournament play. Drawing on Connell’s (1987) construct of hegemonic masculinity and Wendell’s (1996) notion of the “paradigm citizen” (p. 41), we examine if and how hegemonic masculinity and the paradigm citizen/golfer are reinforced, maintained, and challenged within four issues of major golf magazines and a special golfing issue of Sports Illustrated published around the time of the trial. We find that golfers with disabilities are absent from advertisements and photographs and given minimal attention in articles. Proportions of golfers who are older and women golfers, while generally consistent with subscriber proportions, were well under U.S. golfer population percentages. Data suggest that golf magazines continue to maintain and reinforce hegemonic masculinity and the paradigm citizen/golfer.

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun and Yu Liu

cognitive attention ( Yogev, Hausdorff, & Giladi, 2008 ) and executive functions ( Hausdorff, Yogev, Springer, Simon, & Giladi, 2005 ) of the brain in older adults. The dual-task paradigm/condition is typically used to describe a person who is performing a primary task while carrying out a concurrent