; Quehl et al., 1999 ). The goal of education was to complete a curriculum (which interestingly stems from a Latin word meaning “a race” or “racecourse”) and to earn a diploma or degree. At that time, the instruction paradigm took hold of North American higher education ( Tagg, 2003 ). Grounded in
Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel
Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert
This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.
Andrew C. Sparkes
This paper attempts to extend the boundaries of the paradigm debate by focusing on the textual construction of realities. In doing so, it is concerned to enhance the possibilities of critical dialogue within the research community so that understanding might prevail. Insights from poststructuralism are provided to illuminate the manner in which different paradigms utilize various discourses and rhetorics to persuade the reader of the legitimacy of their findings. It is suggested that researchers be encouraged to become active readers and engage in the criticism of texts so that their involvement in producing texts may be viewed as literary enterprises. The development of such a critical and reflective self-awareness regarding their own stylistic conventions and the manner in which these express specific taken-for-granted paradigmatic assumptions are taken to be vital first steps in opening up the possibilities for entertaining alternative views and exploring the intellectual landscape of others. The difficulties of this task are outlined in relation to the political economy of truth and the manner in which power operates to prevent polyvocality in the marketplace of ideas.
Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge
There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.
Stephen J. Virgilio
The purpose of this article is twofold: to discuss some current problems with curriculum design in physical education, and to offer some suggestions for model-based attempts to assist the process of implementing new curriculums. The process of curriculum implementation can be broken into two phases, the preoperational stage and the operational stage. Several issues within each of the two stages are discussed, for curriculum changes in general and specifically for physical education. The key elements in curriculum implementation are: support (material and human), change strategies, communication channels, staff development, and instructional planning. Each element has its own role to play in the process, and the lack of any single element will severely hinder the efficacy of the changes desired. The final section of the article presents a model of the curriculum change process as outlined in the text.
Kate R. Barrett and Adrian P. Turner
This study focuses on Sandy, an experienced physical education specialist, as she teaches STXBALL, a coeducational, noncontact, modified form of lacrosse, for the first time. Using an approach based on a workshop Sandy attended, she is teaching from a perspective that suggests game skills and tactics are linked, thus, should be taught so they emerge and play off of one another. As Sandy is challenged to think and act differently about teaching games, she begins to question and alter some of her actions, recognizing that the movement pattern of a specific skill is rarely the one that is used in a game situation. In addition, she is observing and assessing the effective use of tactics and skills as they do or do not interact.
Simon Davies and John D. West
This article familiarizes sport psychologists, counselors, and coaches with the multimodal approach to enhancing the performance of college athletes. The seven modalities of behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relations, and biological functioning are examined. An individualized modality profile for a collegiate soccer player with performance problems is generated. Various applied intervention techniques are suggested to facilitate performance enhancement.
Elizabeth S. Bressan
The planning and organization of athletic training have historically been much discussed and debated in the coaching and sports science literature. Various influential periodization theorists have devised, promoted, and substantiated particular training-planning models based on interpretation of the scientific evidence and individual beliefs and experiences. Superficially, these proposed planning models appear to differ substantially. However, at a deeper level, it can be suggested that such models share a deep-rooted cultural heritage underpinned by a common set of historically pervasive planning beliefs and assumptions. A concern with certain of these formative assumptions is that, although no longer scientifically justifiable, their shaping influence remains deeply embedded. In recent years substantial evidence has emerged demonstrating that training responses vary extensively, depending upon multiple underlying factors. Such findings challenge the appropriateness of applying generic methodologies, founded in overly simplistic rule-based decision making, to the planning problems posed by inherently complex biological systems. The purpose of this review is not to suggest a whole-scale rejection of periodization theories but to promote a refined awareness of their various strengths and weaknesses. Eminent periodization theorists—and their variously proposed periodization models—have contributed substantially to the evolution of training-planning practice. However, there is a logical line of reasoning suggesting an urgent need for periodization theories to be realigned with contemporary elite practice and modern scientific conceptual models. In concluding, it is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on the design and implementation of sensitive and responsive training systems that facilitate the guided emergence of customized context-specific training-planning solutions.
Despite significant advances in the development and performance of United States-born hockey players since the 1970s, room for improvement remains, especially when one compares the U.S. to its top international competition, much of which succeeds at the Olympic and World Championship level with dramatically smaller pools of talent from which to assemble its elite teams. USA Hockey sought to address this performance discrepancy and fulfill the full potential of American hockey through creation and implementation of its American Development Model (ADM), a nationwide reinvention of how hockey was taught at the grassroots level. Based on long-term athlete development principles and founded on sport science and proven child development best practices, the ADM represents a revolution in athlete and coach development. This paper explores the research that helped create USA Hockey’s ADM, along with the initiative’s methodology, execution and early outcomes.