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Maureen R. Weiss

-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades

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Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar

Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

involves examining if and how we can change sedentary behavior in this population. This might involve learning from paradigms applied with the general population for “breaking up sedentary behavior” and then “replacing sedentary behavior with light physical activity” as an approach for reducing sedentary

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Barbara E. Ainsworth and Steven P. Hooker

The health-enhancing benefits of regular physical activity have been theorized for thousands of years. Within the past 25 years, public health agencies, health-related organizations, and health-focused foundations have recognized regular physical activity as a major factor in preventing premature morbidity and mortality. Colleges and universities have experienced a paradigm shift in applying public health strategies to prepare graduates in understanding how to reduce the impact of sedentary lifestyles on health outcomes. For nearly 20 years, some kinesiology departments have expanded from traditional curricula to new courses and degrees in promoting physical activity in the community, the application of epidemiology concepts to physical activity, and the study of policy and environmental approaches to promoting physical activity. Given the high prevalence of physical activity insufficient to prevent premature morbidity and mortality, continuing educational efforts are needed to assure kinesiology students have the skills and information needed to promote physical activity in communities to people of all ages and abilities.

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David D. Pascoe and Timothy E. Moore

The decline in federal research grant funding and incentive-based budget models to support a university’s mission has necessitated a paradigm shift in the pursuit of available sources of funding. Programs built around federal funding are once again pursuing funding opportunities from industry. Universities are reevaluating their research funding models and career expectations (tenure, promotion) that support a researcher, laboratories, and a defined research agenda. Kinesiology departments are in a strong position to pursue industry funding for fitness, sports, and performance-related research. While grant funding focuses on empirical data-driven research, industry looks for product exposure, validation (empirical data to support claims), and commercialization. Industry partnerships can provide funding in supporting research, developing sponsor-named facilities that benefit both parties. With these cooperative efforts come some unique challenges (financial, proprietary, data interpretation, etc.) that must be addressed.

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Patricia M. Lowrie and Leah E. Robinson

The continuing U.S. demographic shifts provide a substantial rationale for a corresponding transformation in the culture and climate of academic departments in higher education. In part, the response to the change is to increase the representation of people of color and others who have been historically absent from professional areas fed by the Kinesiology pipeline. However, the greater challenge is to understand and therefore, alter the internal culture. An intentional effort toward a culture of inclusion and full participation provides a working platform to transform existing practices and to cultivate policies from which emerging practices will offer opportunities for success. The understanding of the multiple identities of those within Kinesiology and the society served, the portals and gaps within the systemic architecture, and the methods of creating a multicultural organization—all play significant roles in contributing to change and transformation. Enlightened catalytic change agents must adopt new inclusive paradigms to prepare 21st century professionals with adaptive ideologies and behaviors for resolving future issues and challenges.

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Landscape: Identifying Critical Research Issues Daniel Gould * 1 08 2019 8 3 150 161 10.1123/kr.2019-0034 kr.2019-0034 Youth Sport Motivation and Participation: Paradigms, Perspectives, and Practicalities Maureen R. Weiss * 1 08 2019 8 3 162 170 10.1123/kr.2019-0014 kr.2019-0014 Performance Enhancement

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Murray G. Phillips and Gary Osmond

shaped race studies more broadly. With the exception of a couple of Australian authors (see Hallinan & Judd, 2012b ), the major theoretical paradigms central to conceptualizing race relations, Whiteness, and CRT are sparingly employed to understand sport and Aboriginality ( Hylton, 2009 ). We engage

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David I. Anderson

could also profit from incorporation of ideas from CAAME. Kuhn ( 1970 ), in his treatise on the structure of scientific revolutions, maintained that paradigm shifts in the scientific disciplines often occur when new generations of scholars import into their fields ideas and concepts that are already

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David I. Anderson

) contributions to our understanding of the powerful insights that the dynamical-systems approach can offer into the processes that underlie motor behavior have been made by Scott Kelso. One of Kelso’s most recent collaborative efforts to model a classic early-learning paradigm highlights the nature of the work