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Maureen R. Weiss

-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

Background Modulation of Intracortical Connectivity Current non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), focus on changing behaviors through up or down regulation of a single cortical region

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Mark S. Tremblay

the field of time-use epidemiology, an example of which is compositional analyses of 24-hour movement guidelines. Recent Guideline Developments Commensurate with the rapidly emerging evidence supporting the 24-hour guideline paradigm, several jurisdictions have developed public health guidelines

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Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert

This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.

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Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge

There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun and Yu Liu

cognitive attention ( Yogev, Hausdorff, & Giladi, 2008 ) and executive functions ( Hausdorff, Yogev, Springer, Simon, & Giladi, 2005 ) of the brain in older adults. The dual-task paradigm/condition is typically used to describe a person who is performing a primary task while carrying out a concurrent

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Barbara Resnick, Marcia G. Ory, Kerrie Hora, Michael E. Rogers, Phillip Page, Jane N. Bolin, Roseann M. Lyle, Cody Sipe, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko and Terry L. Bazzarre

The Exercise Assessment and Screening for You (EASY) is a tool developed to help older individuals, their health care providers, and exercise professionals identify different types of exercise and physical activity regimens that can be tailored to meet the existing health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities of older adults. The EASY tool includes 6 screening questions that were developed based on an expert roundtable and follow-up panel activities. The philosophy behind the EASY is that screening should be a dynamic process in which participants learn to appreciate the importance of engaging in regular exercise, attending to health changes, recognizing a full range of signs and symptoms that might indicate potentially harmful events, and becoming familiar with simple safety tips for initiating and progressively increasing physical activity patterns. Representing a paradigm shift from traditional screening approaches that focus on potential risks of exercising, this tool emphasizes the benefits of exercise and physical activity for all individuals.

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

squat speed slowed. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine if these relationships changed when a single-leg squat was completed under a dual-task paradigm compared with a single-task paradigm. We hypothesized that CoP range and sway area would increase, and sway speed would decrease to a

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Gonzalo Varas-Diaz, Savitha Subramaniam, Larissa Delgado, Shane A. Phillips and Tanvi Bhatt

exergaming-based dance protocol independently without a fall. Conclusions Our results support the effectiveness of an exergaming-based dance training paradigm on improving HRV and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. Taken together, our results suggest that exergaming-based dance may be a potential

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Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar

Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.