-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades
Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar
Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.
Mary Lou Sheffer and Brad Schultz
This was an extension of research by the same authors (2010) that investigated sports reporters’ perception of their use of Twitter as part of their professional journalistic duties. Using content-analysis methodology (N = 1,008), the authors investigated how sports reporters actually used Twitter. Analysis showed a discrepancy between journalist responses and measured content. Although journalists said they were using Twitter for breaking news and promotion, the dominant result of the content analysis was commentary and opinion. There were also differences related to print and smaller media outlets. The implications of such differences are discussed, including a possible paradigmatic shift in journalists’ approaches.
The voices of South African feminists and womanists are relatively absent from public debates concerning women’s participation and empowerment in sport. This paper represents a contribution to the gender discourse, drawing on feminist paradigms and reflecting on the marginality of South African women in society and in sport. The findings of two separate studies, undertaken in 1977 and 1999 respectively, are reported. The research focused on the assessment of the impact of the Sports Leaders Programme (as part of the South Africa-United Kingdom Sports Initiative) and the junior component of the sports development programme initiated by the Australian Sports Commission (Super Kidz). Data were collected by means of structured interviews from different stakeholders at macro- (national), meso- (community/institutional) and micro- (individual) levels. A representative sample for the Sports Leaders Programme included 17 co-ordinators and facilitators (at national and provincial levels) and nine sports leaders at community level. To obtain qualitative data concerning the Super Kidz Programme, two provinces were targeted for data collection. A quota sample of seven schools was selected as the experimental group (having introduced the programme) and five schools in close proximity acted as controls. One hundred and forty-four role-players at different levels of participation were interviewed. To obtain some triangulation of data, 110 role-players also participated in focus groups. The data reflecting the position and involvement of women in these programmes were analysed. Against the reality of the majority of women living in conditions of chronic poverty, exposed to patriarchy, being ideologically stereotyped and structurally marginalized, they were, to a large extent absent, and their efforts unrecognised in the institutionalised domain of sport. It was concluded that sport is a severely gendered domain in which male hegemony is acted out and perpetuated whereas women in impoverished communities view access to sport as peripheral in their everyday struggle for material survival. National agencies should therefore not rely on female volunteers to facilitate sports development in impoverished communities but to strategize differently while also redressing ideological and structural gender inequalities in the wider social context.
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
female skaters in facing the skating body ideal. Through a social constructivist lens, we examined broad contextual influences of the figure skating environment to examine how body pressures are constructed and reinforced. Using Denzin’s ( 2017 ) critical paradigm, we further examined gender-based power
Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher
theoretical paradigm for how sport organizations perceive and attempt to create gender equity that includes all members of the organization to be part of organizational change” ( Heffernan, 2018 , p. 122). For Women Coaches Support and advocate for each other. When given the opportunity to participate in a
Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner
, 565 – 582 . doi:10.1177/016344396018004004 10.1177/016344396018004004 Sage , G.H. ( 2005 ). Corporate globalization and sporting goods manufacturing.The case of Nike . In D.S. Eitzen (Ed.), Sport in contemporary society. An anthology (pp. 362 – 382 ). Boulder, CO : Paradigm Publishers
Alixandra N. Krahn
, 1981 ; Hsieh & Shannon, 2005 ; Shenton, 2004 ). Guba ( 1981 ), a naturalist, adopted the term ‘trustworthiness’ in order to describe how researchers from the naturalist or qualitative paradigm could ensure that they were conducting their research in a trustworthy manner. Furthermore, Guba ( 1981
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling
. , & Kelly , D.R. ( 2010 ). Research paradigms in medical education research . Medical Education, 44 ( 4 ), 358 – 366 . PubMed ID: 20444071 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03611.x 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03611.x Burns , E.E. , Jackson , J.L. , & Harding , H.G. ( 2010 ). Child maltreatment
Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane
athletes’ sporting experiences . Presentation at the Social Justice through Sport and Exercise Psychology Symposium, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN . Moore , D.L. ( 2011 ). Coming out, or, inviting in?: Reframing disclosure paradigms . Lunch talk at the Center for the Study of Gender and