This was an extension of research by the same authors (2010) that investigated sports reporters’ perception of their use of Twitter as part of their professional journalistic duties. Using content-analysis methodology (N = 1,008), the authors investigated how sports reporters actually used Twitter. Analysis showed a discrepancy between journalist responses and measured content. Although journalists said they were using Twitter for breaking news and promotion, the dominant result of the content analysis was commentary and opinion. There were also differences related to print and smaller media outlets. The implications of such differences are discussed, including a possible paradigmatic shift in journalists’ approaches.
Mary Lou Sheffer and Brad Schultz
Michael L. Naraine
-exchange paradigm, especially the notion of blockchain and decentralized networks. While Nakamoto’s ( 2008 ) advancement of BTC as a cryptocurrency is certainly novel, the underlying support mechanism known as blockchain is incredibly nuanced and has led to other decentralized movements including ride
in a greater likelihood of favorable consumer evaluation of celebrities who have negative publicity. The current study attempts to expand existing research paradigms (e.g., Amos et al., 2008 ) by examining this seeming paradox and further develop current theoretical understanding of the effects of
Carol M. Liebler and Brian P. Moritz
This study focuses on how sportswriters and other writers engaged in news paradigm repair via the explanations they provided for the failure to catch the Manti Te’o hoax in January 2013. The Te’o story is a particularly provocative context in which to examine such paradigm repair, because the transgression did not lie with a single journalist or news organization but with an entire profession failing to get the story. Reporters, columnists, and bloggers all engaged in repair, although the repair tended to appear most frequently in traditional media and run in nonsport sections. Writers rarely engaged in self-reflexivity, instead assigning blame to others, although they did suggest possible repairs. Nearly all writers pointed to news routines to explain how they had been duped, with particular attention to fact-checking and sources.
Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail
Sport consumers are increasingly discontented and disconnected with sport organizations and researchers have advocated a fundamental shift in sport marketing from a traditional exchange paradigm to a relationship paradigm. Relationship quality is critical to understanding sport consumer-organization relationships because it can: (a) render a platform to organize wide-ranging relational constructs; (b) provide insight into evaluating relationship-marketing effectiveness; and (c) diagnose and address problems in relationships. Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework of sport consumer-organization relationship quality that consists of three main components. First, we specify that relationship quality consists of five distinct but related relational constructs (trust, commitment, intimacy, self-connection, and reciprocity). Second, we suggest that relationship quality influences word of mouth, media consumption, licensed-product consumption, and attendance behaviors. Finally, we argue that psychographic factors such as relationship styles, relationship drive, and general interpersonal orientation are moderators, as well as demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, region, and income.
Critical social science is an underused paradigm in sport management. It can, however, help reveal the bad and ugly sides of sport, so we can uncover new ways to promote the good sides of it. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the relevance of this paradigm for sport management teaching, practice, and research. A key assumption of the critical paradigm is that organizations are best viewed as operating in a wider cultural, economic, and political context characterized by asymmetrical power relations that are historically entrenched. Research is not neutral because the goal is to promote social change by challenging dominant ways of thinking and acting that benefit those in power. Conducting critical sport management research requires a specific skill set and adequate training is essential. Drawing on the work of Alvesson and Deetz (2000), the three tasks required to conduct critical social science are insight, critique, and transformative redefinition. These tasks are described and a number of sport-related examples are provided.
Allen L. Sack and Arthur T. Johnson
As cities turn to sport as a vehicle for encouraging economic development, sport managers increasingly find themselves in the midst of debates over urban policy. The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making process that brought the Volvo International Tennis Tournament to New Haven, Connecticut. Because New Haven has been the center of classic debates over community power, the Volvo tennis case offers an excellent opportunity to examine the use of the theories of urban politics in understanding how development decisions are made. The Volvo case suggests that a synthesis of Stone's regime theory and Peterson's economistic paradigm provides a useful model for identifying the key players in economic development.
Dae Hee Kwak, Stephen McDaniel and Ki Tak Kim
The current study revisited the satisfaction-loyalty paradigm in a hedonic consumption context that involves a learning component. In particular, this study involved actual users (N = 328) of a specific sport video game (FIFA soccer), to examine the structural relationships among the constructs of: game satisfaction, hedonic attitudes toward the brand, gaming skill, and brand loyalty. Contrary to existing research in this area, SEM results indicated that customer satisfaction did not have a direct effect on loyalty. The relationship between game satisfaction and loyalty was mediated by positive brand attitudes and perceived gaming skill. The applied and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed along with limitations and future directions for research.
Mary Jo Kane and Heather D. Maxwell
In 2005, the Journal of Sport Management printed Wendy Frisby’s Earle F. Zeigler Lecture. The main thrust of Frisby’s presentation was that critical social science is an underutilized framework for conducting research in sport management and that, as a result, we remain limited in our abilities to truly understand how institutions and organizations “are best viewed as operating in a wider cultural, economic, and political context characterized by asymmetrical power relations that are historically entrenched” (2005, p.1). Other scholars such as Cunningham and Fink (2006) reinforced the importance of doing this kind of critical work. In their review of key research findings in sport management literature related to issues of diversity they concluded that the vast majority of studies “operated from the paradigm of positivism” and thus our field “could benefit from an incorporation of different investigative paradigms” (p. 458). Finally, Shaw and Frisby (2006) called for an embrace of critical theoretical frameworks which empirically address the complexities of, for example, gender relations and (in)equalities found throughout the vast sport enterprise.
Zhengjia Liu and Dan Berkowitz
Social media have changed the way that social actors participate in sports events. “Prosumers” are able to directly offer different interpretations without journalists’ mediation when a social issue arises. However, social media do not fundamentally change the significance of cultural narratives in communication. This study focuses on discussions initiated by a commercial feed on a Chinese microblogging site during the 2012 London Olympic Games. Qualitative textual analysis was conducted. The study found that enduring cultural narratives create the predrafts of social-media communication; the instantaneity of microblogging referred to not simply its physical appearance but also the meaning of that appearance. In addition, social-media texts illustrate a society’s ongoing stories. Going beyond the limitations of previous control-vs.-freedom paradigms, this study explores a Chinese consumer society that is more dynamic and complex than previous studies would suggest.