= 103750, p < .001, r = .21 ), as were relaxin-2 concentration minima ( W = 697.50, p = .003, r = .33). Peak relaxin-2 concentrations were not different between datasets ( W = 438.50, p = .496, r = .08) but varied considerably among participants. Overall, 60 of 66 participants (90.91%) in DSI
Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman
Jochen Musch and Roy Hay
Previous findings of skewed birth date distributions among sports professionals have been interpreted as evidence for a systematic discrimination against children born shortly before the cut-off date for each age grouping. Alternative explanations for these findings exist, however. This research therefore attempted to replicate the effect in a cross-cultural comparison. A strong relative age effect in professional soccer was found in Germany, Japan, Brazil, and Australia, showing that the effect is independent of different cut-off dates and a variety of climatic and sociocultural factors. A shifted peak in the birth date distribution of Australian soccer professionals paralleling a corresponding change in the cut-off date in Australian soccer in 1989 was also established. This pattern of results provides strong evidence for the cut-off date in youth soccer as the main cause for the relative age effect in professional soccer.
Jennifer L. Gay, Eva V. Monsma, Alan L. Smith, J.D. DeFreese and Toni Torres-McGehee
Growth and maturation may impact adolescent behavior and development of psychological disorders. Currently age at menarche is used as the primary marker of maturation, even though it occurs later than other indicators of growth such as peak height velocity (PHV). Maturity offset predicting age at PHV has not been validated in diverse samples. Anthropometric measures and self-reported age at menarche were obtained for 212 female athletes ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.25). Shared variance between menarcheal age and estimated age at PHV (APHV) was small (R 2 = 5.3%). Discriminant validity was established by classifying participants as pre- or post-PHV or menarche (X2 = 32.62, P < .0001). The Pearson’s correlation between chronological age and age at PHV (r = .69) was stronger than with age at menarche (r = .26). Making informed decisions about accounting for growth and maturation using estimated age at PHV are offered.
Darlene A. Sedlock
This study is a comparison of both the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) between women and men. Eighteen (9 women, 9 men) physically active, young adult volunteers performed a moderate exercise in the early morning after having refrained from any strenuous activity for the previous 36-48 hr. Baseline oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured for the last 15 min of a 45 min seated rest. The 30 min cycle ergometer exercise was performed at 60% of each subject’s previously determined peak VO2. Subjects sat quietly in a chair during recovery until VO2 returned to baseline. The women had a significantly lower (t=4.22, p<0.01) resting VO2(0.22±0.03 L min−1) than the men (0.31±0.06 L min−1), however no significant difference was observed when resting VO2 was expressed relative to body weight. VO2 values during exercise were also significantly lower in the women compared to the men (t=4.85, p<0.01). Duration of EPOC was similar between the two groups (women=27.6±15.6, men=28.2±15.9 min). The 38% difference in magnitude of EPOC between the women (9.4±4.7 kcal) and men (13.0±4.6 kcal) was not statistically significant and approximated 5% of the exercise energy expenditure in each group. It was concluded that there was no sex difference in EPOC duration following moderate exercise conditions. Magnitude of EPOC was small for both groups, with women having a slightly lower value.
Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar
(steps/min) • Duration: min of stepping Composite index • Peak 30-min cadence (steps/min) Frequency The number of sessions or bouts of physical activity performed per day or per week. • Count of sessions or bouts per day or week • Daily patterns of stepping in cadence bands • Weekly average of steps
Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer
compete in boxing, whereas the body of students taking a physical education class at a university constitute a much different population. There are two main considerations governing the selection of boxing gloves for training. First, a heavier boxing glove decreases punch acceleration and reduces the peak
jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali
-response” program, where they reduce their electricity during peak events, which helps prevent blackouts but also earns the facility financial credit as well. Within the report on water use, the SR mentions that facility managers are improving water systems to increase efficiency and thus, save money. Additionally
Derek M.D. Silva, Roy Bower and William Cipolli III
its own discursive constructions of the athletic body. All in the name of commodification. Notes 1. According to Google Trends data, National Signing Day reached a peak in interest, measured by Google searches, during the week of January 31st to February 6th, 2016. National Signing Day was on February
Pierre-Olaf Schut and Antoine Marsac
above 12,000 English feet,” Peaks, passes and glaciers (1860): 316. 25. Edouard Whymper, Escalades dans les Alpes (Paris: Hachette, 1873), 213-37. 26. Ouest Matin , Rennes, 4 août 1955. 27. Schut, “L’exploration du gouffre Berger,” 73-87. 28. Georges Marry, Gouffre Berger premier -1000 (Saint
Phillip Chipman and Kevin B. Wamsley
shabby alibi for a personality that may seem abnormal.” 88 This marked both the peak and the impending decline of the Gagnon-Weider rivalry in Montreal. Gagnon folded Santé et Développement Physique , in 1956, bringing with it the demise of the FCFC. It is difficult to unearth the exact cause of Gagnon