In this article we reviewed a series of studies (n = 18) on psychological preparation of the goalkeeper (GK) for the 11-m penalty kick in soccer. The main findings of this review were that deception strategies (e.g., standing slightly off-center) can increase the chances of the kick being directed to a desired direction, and that individual differences among GKs should be considered when planning sport psychology programs for GKs. A number of research limitations and methodological concerns, such as the lack of ecological validity of the tasks performed in the studies and the lack of studies on psychological interventions, were discussed. In addition, a number of practical implications for sport psychology consultants who work with GKs in soccer were suggested.
Ronnie Lidor, Gal Ziv and Tamar Gershon
Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson
diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) provides an objective insight into an athlete’s physiological state (adaptive or maladaptive) when encountering an activating event. Considering the promise, there is a dearth of REBT research exploring the use of physiological markers. In line with REBT theory, a penalty-kick
Matt Dicks, Chris Pocock, Richard Thelwell and John van der Kamp
Rafael A.B. Tedesqui and Terry Orlick
The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the attentional focus experienced by elite soccer players in different soccer positions and performance tasks of both closed and open skills. No previous studies have explored elite soccer players’ attentional skills from a naturalistic and qualitative perspective in such detail. Data collection consisted of individual semistructured interviews with eight highly elite Brazilian soccer players from five main soccer positions, namely goalkeeper, defender, wing, midfielder, and forward. Important themes were positive thinking, performing on autopilot, and relying on peripheral vision. For example, thematic analysis indicated that in tasks where there may be an advantage in disguising one’s intentions (e.g., penalty kick), relying on peripheral vision was essential. Early mistakes were among the main sources of distractions; thus, players reported beginning with easy plays as a strategy to prevent distractions. Implications for applied sport psychology were drawn and future studies recommended.
Bruce D. Hale and Adam Whitehouse
This study attempted to manipulate an athlete’s facilitative or debilitative appraisal (direction; Jones, 1995) of competitive anxiety through imagery-based interventions in order to study the effects on subsequent anxiety intensity (heart rate and CSAI-2) and direction (CSAI-2D; Jones & Swain, 1992). In a within-subjects’ design, 24 experienced soccer players were relaxed via progressive relaxation audiotape and then randomly underwent an imagery-based video- and audiotaped manipulation of their appraisal of taking a hypothetical gamewinning penalty kick under either a “pressure” or “challenge” appraisal emphasis. There was no significant effect for heart rate. A repeated measures MANOVA for CSAI-2 and CSAI-2D scores revealed that for both intensity and direction scores the challenge condition produced less cognitive anxiety, less somatic anxiety, and more self-confidence (all p < .001) than the pressure situation. This finding suggests that a challenge appraisal manipulation taught by applied sport psychologists might benefit athletes’ performance.
Matthew D. DeLang, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Karim Chamari and Paul A. Salamh
, Fousekis and Tsepis 46 employed a specialized footedness questionnaire, Mosler et al 47 defined footedness per the preferential limb to take a penalty kick, and Pellicer-Chenoll et al 42 did not specify how footedness was defined. Study Quality Table 1 denotes the quality of the studies. The Joanna
lake,” and “don’t choke” will typically produce the unwanted behavior. This is especially the case under pressure. For example, soccer players told to shoot a penalty kick anywhere but a certain spot of the net, such as the lower right corner, look at that spot more often than any other. Similarly
Tiffanye M. Vargas, Robbi Beyer and Margaret M. Flores
quantitative data by recording the amount of trials it takes to “master” a set goal. For example, how many shots does it take for an athlete to make 10 free throws, or kick 10 goals from a penalty kick? No matter the method for collection, all assessments must generalize to the game and be executed in a
Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green and Margaret E. Whitehead
, bowling, and shooting Spin bowling in cricket Striking Batting, dribbling, driving, and kicking Penalty kick in football Rotating Turning and spinning Somersault in Trampolining Note . Adapted from Physical literacy: Throughout the lifecourse (p. 179), by E. Murdoch and M.E. Whitehead, 2010, London, UK