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John van der Kamp

This study investigated whether soccer penalty-takers can exploit predictive information from the goalkeeper’s actions. Eight low- and seven high-skilled participants kicked balls in a penalty task with the goalkeeper’s action displayed on a large screen. The goalkeeper initiated his dive either before, at or after the ball was struck. The percentage of balls shot to the empty half of the goal was not above chance when the participants could only rely on predictive information. Gaze patterns suggested that the need to fixate the target location to maintain aiming accuracy hindered perceptual anticipation. It is argued that penalty-takers should select a target location in advance of the run-up to the ball and disregard the goalkeeper’s actions.

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Philip Furley, Matt Dicks and Daniel Memmert

In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

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Martina Navarro, Nelson Miyamoto, John van der Kamp, Edgard Morya, Ronald Ranvaud and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

We investigated the effects of high pressure on the point of no return or the minimum time required for a kicker to respond to the goalkeeper’s dive in a simulated penalty kick task. The goalkeeper moved to one side with different times available for the participants to direct the ball to the opposite side in low-pressure (acoustically isolated laboratory) and high-pressure situations (with a participative audience). One group of participants showed a significant lengthening of the point of no return under high pressure. With less time available, performance was at chance level. Unexpectedly, in a second group of participants, high pressure caused a qualitative change in which for short times available participants were inclined to aim in the direction of the goalkeeper’s move. The distinct effects of high pressure are discussed within attentional control theory to reflect a decreasing efficiency of the goal-driven attentional system, slowing down performance, and a decreasing effectiveness in inhibiting stimulus-driven behavior.

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Joe Causer and A. Mark Williams

A number of novel manipulations to the design of playing uniforms were used to try to disguise the actions of penalty takers in soccer. Skilled and less-skilled soccer goalkeepers were required to anticipate penalty kick outcome while their opponent wore one of three different uniform designs that were intended to disguise the availability of potentially key information from the hip region. Variations of shapes/patterns were designed to conceal the actual alignment of the hips. Three occlusion points were used in the test film: −160 ms, −80 ms before, and at foot–ball contact. Skilled individuals reported higher accuracy scores than their less-skilled counterparts (p < .05). There were no performance decrements for the less-skilled group across the different uniform conditions (p > .05); however, the skilled group decreased their accuracy on the experimental conditions compared with the control (p < .05). Findings highlight the potential benefits of designing playing uniforms that facilitate disguise in sport.

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Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr and Mark R. Wilson

and the type of information that can be used during QE durations to guide accurate aiming. One sporting task where deceptive eye movements have been recently shown to be prevalent is the soccer penalty kick. Early research ( Kuhn, 1988 ) identified two aiming strategies: keeper dependent (KD), where

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Florian Müller, Jonathan F. Best and Rouwen Cañal-Bruland

.G. , & Bray , K. ( 2006 ). Measuring and modeling the goalkeeper’s diving envelope in a penalty kick . The Engineering of Sport, 6 , 321 – 326 . Kuhn , W. ( 1988 ). Penalty-kick strategies for shooters and goalkeepers . In A.L.T. Reilly , K. Davids , & W.J. Murphy (Eds.), Science and

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Jonathan D. Connor, Robert G. Crowther and Wade H. Sinclair

? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12 ( S2 ), e180 – 181 . doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.380 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.380 Piras , A. , & Vickers , J.N. ( 2011 ). The effect of fixation transitions on quiet eye duration and performance in the soccer penalty kick: Instep versus inside kicks

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Matthew D. DeLang, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Karim Chamari and Paul A. Salamh

, Fousekis and Tsepis 46 employed a specialized footedness questionnaire, Mosler et al 47 defined footedness per the preferential limb to take a penalty kick, and Pellicer-Chenoll et al 42 did not specify how footedness was defined. Study Quality Table  1 denotes the quality of the studies. The Joanna

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Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

that the direction of one’s gaze is used as an information source to anticipate the actions of the opponent. Dicks, Button, and Davids ( 2010 ), for example, found that soccer goalkeepers often fixate on the head of the penalty taker when trying to save a penalty kick. It could be that they try to read