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Tim J. Gabbett, Ben Walker and Shane Walker

Purpose:

To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during gamebased activities.

Methods:

Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals.

Results:

Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.

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Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay and Chris R. Abbiss

increases with alterations in physiological stress such as an increase in oxygen consumption, an increase in metabolic acidosis, or reductions in carbohydrate stores. 5 , 22 , 23 This is not to state that perceived effort only arises from corollary discharges of central motor command and perceived exertion

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

of the rest duration. Immediately after the mouth rinse, subjects commenced their run to exhaustion test on the treadmill at velocity equivalent to 100% of individual’s VO 2 max. Every 30 seconds during the test, individuals were questioned about their ratings of perceived effort (using the Borg

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Diego B. Souza, Michael Duncan and Marcos D. Polito

Purpose: To examine the effects of acute caffeine (CAF) intake on physical performance in 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with blood-flow restriction. Methods: In a double-blind crossover design, 22 trained men ingested 6 mg·kg−1 of CAF or a placebo (PLA), 1 h prior to performing unilateral knee-extension exercise with blood-flow restriction until exhaustion (30% of 1 maximal repetition). Results: There was a significant difference in the number of repetitions between the CAF and PLA conditions in the first set (28.3 [5.3] vs 23.7 [3.2]; P = .005), second set (11.6 [3.1] vs 8.9 [2.9]; P = .03), and total repetitions performed across the 3 sets (44.5 [9.4] vs 35.0 [6.6]; P = .001). Blood lactate was also significantly different (P = .03) after exercise between the CAF (7.8 [1.1] mmol·L−1) and PLA (6.0 [0.9] mmol·L−1). In regard to pain perception, there was a difference between the CAF and PLA in the second (6.9 [1.5] vs 8.4 [1.4]; P = .04) and third sets (8.7 [0.4] vs 9.5 [0.6]; P = .01). No differences were found for perceived effort. Conclusion: Acute caffeine intake increases performance and blood lactate concentration and reduces perception of pain in unilateral knee-extension exercise with blood-flow restriction.

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Chris Easton, Stephen Turner and Yannis P. Pitsiladis

The authors examined the effects of combined creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) supplementation on responses to exercise in the heat. Subjects (N = 24) were matched for body mass and assigned to either a Cr or placebo (Pl) group. Twice daily during two 7-d supplementation regimens, the Cr group received 11.4 g of Cr·H2O and the Pl group received 11.4 g of glucose. Subjects in both groups also ingested 1 g of Gly/kg body mass (twice daily) in either the first or the second supplementation regimen. This design allowed 4 possible combinations of supplements to be examined (Pl/Pl, Pl/Gly, Cr/Pl, and Cr/Gly). Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post supplementation at 30 °C and 70% relative humidity. In the Pl group, total body water (TBW) increased by 0.50 ± 0.28 L after Gly and in the Cr group by 0.63 ± 0.33 L after Pl and by 0.87 ± 0.21 L after Gly. Both Cr/Pl and Cr/Gly resulted in significantly attenuated heart rate, rectal temperature, and perceived effort during exercise, although no regimen had any effect on performance. The addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone (P = 0.02) but did not further enhance the attenuation in HR, Tre, and RPE during exercise. These data suggest that combined Cr and Gly is an effective method of hyper hydration capable of reducing thermal and cardiovascular responses.

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Vasilis Nikolopoulos, Melissa J. Arkinstall and John A. Hawley

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion before and during intense constant load cycling to volitional fatigue on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. After 24-h diet and training control, 8 well-trained subjects [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 66 ± 2 ml · kg–1· min–1; mean ± SD] ingested 8 ml · kg–1 of either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) or a placebo (PLA) solution immediately before, followed by 2 ml · kg–1 of the same solution every 15 min while cycling to exhaustion at 84 ± 1% of VO2max. Exercise time to fatigue was 13% longer with CHO ingestion compared to PLA (58:54 ± 8:48 vs. 51:18 ± 5:54 min:s, NS). VO2 (4.22 ± 0.11 vs. 4.20 ± 0.14 L · min–1), heart rate (172 ± 4 vs. 176 ± 4 beats · min–1), ratings of perceived effort (18 ± 0.1 vs. 19 ± 0.1), and rates of carbohydrate oxidation (314 ± 28 vs. 324 ± 26 μmol · kg–1 · min–1) were similar for both PLA and CHO at exhaustion. There was no main treatment effect of CHO ingestion on blood glucose or lactate concentrations, nor plasma prolactin levels either during exercise or at fatigue. However, CHO ingestion attenuated the rise in EMG root mean square (RMS) activity during the latter stages (>45 min) of exercise and at the point of exhaustion for both VM (0.325 ± 0.010 vs. 0.403 ± 0.020 mV; p = .006) and VL (0.298 ± 0.011 vs. 0.370 ± 0.007 mV; p = .0004). We conclude that in well-trained subjects, the ingestion of carbohydrate attenuated the increase in surface electromyographic activity during intense, constant load cycling leading to exhaustion in ~1 h. The precise mechanism(s) underlying this effect cannot be attributed to alterations in CHO availability but, instead, may be linked to changes in afferent sensory input.

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

trivial effect on postrace RPE, suggesting that increased race intensity was not accompanied by increased perceived effort. These findings are in line with a recently published study in which perceptual strain at an exercise intensity of 4 W·kg −1 for 8 minutes was lower after acute preexercise HRW

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis

increased anaerobic contribution and induced higher perceived effort, as indicated by the higher BL concentration and RPE. The last observation highlights the importance to consider the interplay of both biomechanical and physiological alterations during training as these are interconnected in order to

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Filipe M. Clemente, Ana F. Silva, Cain C.T. Clark, Daniele Conte, João Ribeiro, Bruno Mendes and Ricardo Lima

league in the season. All the players were monitored for perceived effort and well-being status throughout the season, incorporated into their daily routines. The players were monitored over 36 consecutive weeks, including 237 training sessions and 37 official matches. For each week, the inclusion

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, elbow flexion), 7 and only in recent years, its effects on whole-body dynamic exercise (ie, cycling) have been tested. 7 Some benefits of tDCS have been reported, such as improvements in performance itself (eg, power output or time to exhaustion) or decreases in the perceived effort for a given