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Walter J. Rejeski and Paul M. Ribisl

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anticipated task duration on ratings of perceived exertion during treadmill running. Male subjects.(N = 15) completed two separate runs on a motor-driven treadmill at 85% V02 max. During one trial, subjects ran for a period of 20 minutes, while for a second trial, subjects were led to believe that they would be running for 30 minutes. In each case, the trials were terminated at the 20-minute mark. Ratings of perceived exertion, heart rates, respiratory rates, and ventilatory minute volumes were collected across each trial. Results supported the supposition that the anticipation of continued performance mediated ratings of effort expenditure. This effect was obtained only during moderate work levels and was in contrast to research examining mental fatigue.

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Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr. and Jennifer Schiavoni

Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.

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Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

of the training period and the RT intensity prescription method (percentage of one-repetition maximum [%1-RM] vs. rate of perceived effort [RPE]) in the main outcomes. Methods Study Selection Procedure The study was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews

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Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello

pretest to posttest suggesting participants demonstrated improved efficiency with this task since they walked farther and faster at the same perceived effort. DATSAT training lasted approximately 6 min in total, resulted in RPEs of 9–10 per session, and incorporated 96 steps. Using the stepping

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Diane K. Ehlers and Jennifer L. Huberty


The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA).


Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred.


Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application.


Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middleaged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

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Herbert W. Marsh

Physical activity measures for a large, nationally representative sample of Australian boys and girls aged 9, 12, and 15 were related to multiple dimensions of physical fitness. Physical activity during a one-week period was only modestly related to physical fitness. However, relations tended to be higher for length of time multiplied by METs (METs - minday1) than for time alone, time multiplied by perceived effort, or METs - min day−1 multiplied by effort, whereas time multiplied by effort did no better than time alone. Relations tended to be nonlinear in that progressively higher levels of activity had less positive associations with physical fitness. The pattern and size of the relations were consistent across scores for boys and girls aged 9 to 15. Self-report measures of typical and recent (within one week) physical activity both contributed to the prediction of physical fitness, indicating that both aspects of physical activity are important.

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Vicki Ebbeck

This study examined the sources of information used by adult exercisers to judge performance. Of particular interest was the investigation of gender differences. Subjects, 271 adults (174 males, 97 females) who were enrolled in a university weight training program, completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate the importance of 12 information sources in judging weight training performance: instructor feedback, student feedback, student comparison, changes noticed outside the gym, personal attraction toward the activity, degree of perceived effort exerted in the workout, performance in workout, feedback from others not in the class, goal setting, muscle development, workout improvement over time, and ease in learning new skills. Results revealed a significant discriminant function analysis for gender, with six information sources entering the stepwise procedure: goal setting, student feedback, learning, effort, improvement, and changes noticed outside the gym differentiated the gender groups. Males relied more than females on student feedback as an information source to judge performance. Alternatively, females used effort, goal setting, improvement, and learning as information sources more than males.

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum

than a passive view of perceptions. The effort-related attention model, which builds on Rejeski’s ( 1985 ) parallel-processing model, views attention allocation as an imperative mediator between physical workload and perceived effort/exertion ( Tenenbaum, 2001 ). Specifically, during low physical

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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi and Mauro Gonçalves

). Greater perceived effort and fatigue, in turn, may reduce habitual gait speed, reduce activity participation, contribute to mobility and ADL disabilities, and increase the probability of falling ( Crombie et al., 2004 ; Parijat & Lockhart, 2008 ; Simonsick, Schrack, Glynn, & Ferrucci, 2014

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Jordan Andre Martenstyn, Lauren Powell, Natasha Nassar, Mark Hamer and Emmanuel Stamatakis

question about perceived effort during sports, they did not measure PA volume. 16 To our knowledge, no study has compared mortality risk estimates derived from absolute and corrected METs. The aim of this study was to compare these 2 intensity-weighted PA volume estimation methods (absolute vs corrected