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Timothy M. Wohlfert and Kevin C. Miller

Focused Clinical Question Does precooling (PC) with whole-body cold water immersion (CWI) affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • We searched for studies that compared subjects

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Manoel E. Lixandrão, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Maira Miquelini, Ieda F. Alvarez and Cleiton Augusto Libardi

and effective way to assess RE-induced stress is through rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales. 8 , 9 RPE scales have been shown to be sensitive to manipulations in RE variables. For instance, HI-RE is associated with higher RPE levels compared with LI-RE when an exercise set is not performed to

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Robert Arnhold, Nelson Ng and Gary Pechar

This study was conducted to determine the predictive ability of rated perceived exertion (RPE) of mentally retarded (MR) young adults with respect to heart rate (HR) and workload (WL). Subjects were a group of 10 mentally retarded adults (M age = 21.20 yrs, M IQ = 50.5) and a control group of 10 nonretarded adults (M age = 21.18 yrs). The procedure involved the performance of a continuous multistage treadmill test using a modified Balke protocol. Rated perceived exertion and heart rate were recorded after each minute. Correlation coefficients for both RPE/HR and RPE/WL were significant for both groups. Tests for differences in RPE/HR and RPE/WL correlation coefficients between the two groups indicated significance for RPE/HR but none for RPE/WL. Regression analysis revealed that variation in RPE could be explained by variations in HR and WL. The association between rated perceived exertion and heart rate and rated perceived exertion and workload suggests the use of the Borg scale with mentally retarded individuals.

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Leona J. Holland, Marcel Bouffard and Denise Wagner

The reliability of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at three different workloads was examined during an arm cranking exercise task. Nine persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and confined to a wheelchair each performed two sessions of discontinuous, submaximal aerobic test on an arm ergometer. Comparisons of the test scores and generalizability theory were used to analyze the data. Both HR and VO2 were found to be reliable measures under the conditions used in this study. RPE at the same workloads was found to be rather unreliable. Overall, the use of RPE as an indicator of exercise intensity instead of HR appears to be unjustified by the results of this study. Therefore, practitioners who want a quick and efficient method of measuring exercise intensity should use HR instead of RPE for persons with multiple sclerosis.

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Anthony D. Mahon, Megan E. Woodruff, Mary P. Horn, Andrea D. Marjerrison and Andrew S. Cole

The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)—heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 ± 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 ± 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD were examined while on their usual dose of medication on the day of study. HR and RPE, using the OMNI RPE scale, were assessed during a graded exercise to peak voluntary effort. The RPE-HR relationship was determined individually and the intercept and slope responses were compared between groups. The intercept was 132.4 ± 19.5 bpm for children with ADHD and 120.6 ± 15.7 bpm for children without ADHD. The slope was 7.3 ± 1.9 bpm/RPE for the children with ADHD and 8.1 ± 1.6 bpm/RPE for the children without ADHD. For the group with ADHD the intercept and slope values fell outside of the 95% CI observed in the control group. The altered relationship between RPE and HR with stimulant medication use in children with ADHD has practical implications with respect to the use of HR and RPE to monitor exercise intensity.

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Thomas J. Birk and Marianne Mossing

The purpose of this study was to determine whether heart rate and ventilation can be predicted from RPE. Also, this study determined whether breathing or heart rate sensations caused perceived effort or strain (degree of perceived central strain). Eight ambulatory active teenagers (ages 13-16 years, M= 14.75) with spastic cerebral palsy performed a discontinuous maximum bicycle ergometer protocol. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) (V5 lead), and V̇E (Wright respirometer) were recorded each minute. Results indicated that Minutes 1 and 2 of Stage 1 were significantly correlated for RPE and ventilation, and RPE and heart rate were significantly correlated for Minutes 3 and 4 of Stages 1 and 2. Low standard error of estimates values were also evident for each of these minutes wherein significant correlations resulted. Initially, pulmonary strain was perceived as greater than HR for a given RPE value. However, by the conclusion of the second stage, breathing was slightly less than cardiac strain. Results suggest that RPE can be used to predict heart rate after the 2nd minute of discontinuous exercise training or testing. The accurate estimation of ventilation for the initial minutes of exercise may be limited since some anxiety, secondary to hyperventilation, could result. Also, breathing is perceived as a greater strain than heart rate initially but appears to equal and be slightly lower at the conclusion of aerobic exercise.

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Anne-Marie Heugas and Isabelle A. Siegler

, the mechanisms by which individuals switch gait are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, most studies have mainly focused either on metabolic, movement variability, or perceived exertion responses related with gait transition. Indeed, only a few have observed the relationship between these various

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Kenji Masumoto, Ayako Hamada, Hiro-omi Tomonaga, Kana Kodama and Noboru Hotta


Walking in water has been included in rehabilitation programs. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of a water current on physiological responses, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and stride characteristics of subjects while they walk in water.


To compare physiological responses, RPE, and stride characteristics of subjects walking in water (with and without a current) with those of subjects walking on dry land.


Repeated measures.


University laboratory.


7 male adults (mean age = 21.6 y).


Subjects walked on a treadmill on dry land and on an underwater treadmill immersed to the level of the xiphoid process. The walking speeds in water were set to be half of that on dry land.

Main Outcome Measures:

Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), RPE (for breathing and legs, RPE-Br and RPE-Legs, respectively), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, and stride frequency (SF) were measured. In addition, stride length (SL) was calculated.


There was no significant difference in the VO2, RER, HR, VE, RPE-Br, and RPE-Legs while walking in water with a current compared with walking on dry land (P > .05). Furthermore, VO2, RER, HR, VE, RPE-Br, RPE-Legs, SF, and SBP while walking in water were significantly higher with a water current than without (P < .05).


These observations suggest that half the speed should be required to work at the similar metabolic costs and RPE while walking in water with a current, compared with walking on dry land. Furthermore, it was suggested that the physiological responses and RPE would be higher while walking in water with a current than without.

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Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber

OR endurance cyclists • Intervention: cold water immersion, OR ice immersion, OR cold bath, OR ice bath, AND pre-cooling • Comparison: control • Outcomes: performance, AND core temperature, AND heart rate, AND rate of perceived exertion, AND blood lactate concentration Figure 1 —Summary of search

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

amputation of right leg; OD = other individual-specific impairments; Msc = multiple sclerosis; WB = wheelchair basketball; WT = wheelchair tennis; WR = wheelchair rugby; HAND = handcycling; [Lac] = lactate concentration; RPE = rating of perceived exertion; VO 2peak  = peak oxygen uptake; HR–VO 2 =heart rate