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Xiaoxia Su, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang

The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students’ 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students’ scores were fully invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals positively predicted intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. It also revealed that performance-approach goal was a stronger predictor of external regulation among female students than among male students. Collectively, these results provide evidence that researchers can make valid inferences about differences in achievement goal and self-regulation scores across male and female students. This study also supports the view that mastery-approach goals are motivationally beneficial, especially among female students, in college physical activity class settings.

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Stéphanie Girard, Jérôme St-Amand and Roch Chouinard

others or surpass the standard, they tend to pursue performance-approach goals. For them, the expectation of success is positive and oriented toward success. In contrast, if individuals do not feel competent in comparison with others, they might adopt performance-avoidance goals. With the expectation of

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Bulent Agbuga and Ping Xiang

Guided by the trichotomous achievement goal framework, the current study examined mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals and their relations to self-reported persistence/effort among Turkish students in secondary physical education. Two hundred twenty-nine students in grades 8 and 11 completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and self-reported persistence/effort in secondary physical education. Results of this study revealed that 8th-graders scored significantly higher than 11th-graders on performance-approach goals and self-reported persistence/effort. Mastery goals and performance-approach goals emerged as significant positive predictors of students’ self-reported persistence/effort, but their predictive power varied by grade. Overall, results of this study provide empirical support for the trichotomous achievement goal framework in the context of secondary school physical education.

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Victoria E. Warburton and Christopher M. Spray

The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal pattern of pupils’ approach-avoidance achievement goal adoption in physical education across Key Stage 3 of secondary school. Moreover, we determined the predictive utility of implicit theories of ability and perceived competence in explaining change in achievement goals, along with the moderating influence of pupils’ year group. On four occasions, over a 9-month period, 511 pupils in Years 7, 8, and 9 completed measures of perceived competence, incremental and entity beliefs, and approach-avoidance goals. Mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals exhibited a linear decline over time, whereas performance-approach goals showed no significant change. Theoretical propositions regarding the antecedents of approach-avoidance goal adoption were supported. Year group was found to moderate a number of these antecedent-goal relationships. Results suggest that Year 7 is a critical time for adolescents’ motivation in school physical education.

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Jianmin Guan, Ping Xiang, Ron McBride and April Bruene

This study examined the relationship between achievement goals and social goals and explored how students’ achievement goals and social goals might affect their reported persistence and effort expended toward physical education in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southwest U.S. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social responsibility goals represented the greatest contributor to students’ expenditure of persistence and effort toward physical education. This was followed by mastery-approach goals, mastery-avoidance goals, and performance-approach goals. In addition, girls reported significantly higher values on both social-relationship goals and responsibility goals than did boys. Findings revealed that students had multiple goals for wanting to succeed in physical education; using both achievement goals and social goals when studying student motivation and achievement in high school physical education settings is recommend.

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Julien E. Bois, Philippe G. Sarrazin, Julien Southon and Julie C. S. Boiché

This study investigated the psychological characteristics of professional golfers and their relation to golf performance. The aims of the study were (a) to provide descriptive data on professional golfers, (b) to test possible differences between successful and unsuccessful players and (c) to estimate whether psychological characteristics could predict golf performance. The data were collected from 41 male professional golfers the day before an official competition. Results revealed that players who made the cut were characterized by higher scores on performance-approach goal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, relaxation strategies, attentional control, emotional control and lower score on performance-avoidance goal. Subsequently, a multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cognitive anxiety, more frequent use of relaxation strategies and emotional control strategies were associated with better player’s ranking at the end of the competition.

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

performance trajectory), performance-approach goals (i.e., doing well relative to others), mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., not doing poorly relative to the task demands or one’s own performance trajectory), performance-avoidance goals (i.e., not doing poorly relative to others), and general test anxiety

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Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu and Alex C. Garn

are not a negative predictor of subjective well-being in collectivistic countries ( Elliot et al., 2001 ). Further research is needed to investigate teachers’ avoidance goals for teaching physical education. It is important to point out that those with high performance-approach goals for teaching also

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Ken R. Lodewyk

performance-approach goals and neuroticism and agreeableness (inversely). These studies infer that that being more conscientious —that is, those who set clear goals and regulate their time and learning to better overcome challenges to improved learning—may be more likely to develop both learning and

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

). Motivation In addition to the model developed by Schmader et al. ( 2008 ), different motivational approaches of explaining the processes underlying ST have been presented. These motivational approaches suggest that whereas some people are motivated by a desire to outperform others (performance-approach goal