In two cross-sectional studies we investigated whether soccer players’ well-being (Study 1) and moral functioning (Studies 1 and 2) is related to performance-approach goals and to the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying their pursuit. In support of our hypotheses, we found in Study 1 that autonomous reasons were positively associated with vitality and positive affect, whereas controlling reasons were positively related to negative affect and mostly unrelated to indicators of morality. To investigate the lack of systematic association with moral outcomes, we explored in Study 2 whether performance-approach goals or their underlying reasons would yield an indirect relation to moral outcomes through their association with players’ objectifying attitude—their tendency to depersonalize their opponents. Structural equation modeling showed that controlling reasons for performance-approach goals were positively associated with an objectifying attitude, which in turn was positively associated to unfair functioning. Results are discussed within the achievement goal perspective (Elliot, 2005) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Maarten Vansteenkiste, Athanasios Mouratidis and Willy Lens
Joachim Stoeber, Mark A. Uphill and Sarah Hotham
The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes’ goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes’ performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.
Ben Jackson, Chris G. Harwood and J. Robert Grove
This study examined the extent to which 2 × 2 achievement goal constructs (Elliot, 1999) were associated with key relational perceptions (i.e., relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction) for members of athlete-athlete dyads. Both members from 82 regional-level partnerships (mean age = 22.72, SD = 3.83) were recruited from a variety of dyadic sports (e.g., tennis, badminton, rowing). Actor-partner interdependence model analyses revealed that greater dissimilarity between partners on mastery-approach and performance-approach goals was associated with lower commitment and satisfaction. Mastery goals displayed positive actor effects with respect to both relationship perceptions, whereas performance-avoidance goals were negatively related to commitment (i.e., actor and partner effects) and satisfaction (i.e., partner effect). These results indicate that achievement goal constructs may align with important interpersonal perceptions in athlete dyads.
Aïna Chalabaev, Philippe Sarrazin, Jeff Stone and François Cury
This research investigated stereotype threat effects on women’s performance in sports and examined the mediation of this effect by achievement goals. The influence of two stereotypes—relative to the poor athletic ability and the poor technical soccer ability of women—were studied. Fifty-one female soccer players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, introducing the task as diagnostic of athletic ability, technical soccer ability, or sports psychology. Next, they filled out a questionnaire measuring achievement goals and performed a soccer dribbling task. Results showed that compared with the control condition, females’ performance significantly decreased in the athletic ability condition and tended to decrease in the technical soccer ability condition. Moreover, participants endorsed a performance-avoidance (relative to performance-approach) goal when the stereotypes were activated. However, this goal endorsement was not related to performance. The implications of these results for understanding the role of stereotypes in gender inequalities in sports are discussed.
Julien E. Bois, Philippe G. Sarrazin, Julien Southon and Julie C. S. Boiché
This study investigated the psychological characteristics of professional golfers and their relation to golf performance. The aims of the study were (a) to provide descriptive data on professional golfers, (b) to test possible differences between successful and unsuccessful players and (c) to estimate whether psychological characteristics could predict golf performance. The data were collected from 41 male professional golfers the day before an official competition. Results revealed that players who made the cut were characterized by higher scores on performance-approach goal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, relaxation strategies, attentional control, emotional control and lower score on performance-avoidance goal. Subsequently, a multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cognitive anxiety, more frequent use of relaxation strategies and emotional control strategies were associated with better player’s ranking at the end of the competition.
2010 32 2 193 216 10.1123/jsep.32.2.193 Detaching Reasons From Aims: Fair Play and Well-Being in Soccer as a Function of Pursuing Performance-Approach Goals for Autonomous or Controlling Reasons Maarten Vansteenkiste * Athanasios Mouratidis * Willy Lens * 4 2010 32 2 217 242 10.1123/jsep.32
, performance approach goals showed stronger associations with performance, satisfaction, and positive affect. These findings support the idea that both the aim (i.e., goal) and reason (i.e., motivation) of goal-directed action matters in sport for performance and well-being. When studying the correlates of
Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny
). Motivation In addition to the model developed by Schmader et al. ( 2008 ), different motivational approaches of explaining the processes underlying ST have been presented. These motivational approaches suggest that whereas some people are motivated by a desire to outperform others (performance-approach goal
Sofie Morbée, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens
-being . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 481 – 502 . PubMed ID: 22889690 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.4.481 10.1123/jsep.34.4.481 Vansteenkiste , M. , Mouratidis , A. , & Lens , W. ( 2010 ). Detaching reasons from aims: Fair play and well-being in soccer as a function of pursuing performance-approach