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Column-editor : Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg

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Francis M. Kozub

The purpose was to study expectations, persistence, and posttask attributions in 33 children (ages 9 to 15 years) with mental retardation (MR) and 40 children (ages 10 to 13 years) without disabilities during integrated physical education classes. Each of the participants (34 male and 39 females) viewed a video of another child successfully completing a game, responded to a question about expectations, and engaged in this same game alongside a peer. Results indicated that expectations did not differ between children with and without MR, χ2(1) = .35, p > .05. Following each child’s request to stop playing, a video of individual performance was displayed and an interview was conducted to determine posttask attributions. Learners with MR were less persistent than peers without disabilities, F(1, 68) = 4.60, p < .5, η2 = .06. Although less persistent, children with MR did not differ on posttask attributions from peers without disabilities, χ2(2) = 3.64, p > .05; χ2(2) = 1.74, p > .05.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar

Context:

Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.

Objective:

To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.

Design:

A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.

Results:

Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.

Conclusions:

Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Christianne M. Eason, Rhyan A. Lazar and James M. Mensch

We examined factors that have contributed to career longevity in the profession of athletic training in the NCAA Division I setting. Longevity is an important topic for athletic trainers, as many depart the setting for various reasons, and viability of a lifelong career is often questioned. Fourteen (11 males and 3 females) athletic trainers who have worked in NCAA Division I athletics for 15 years or more volunteered to participate in this study and completed one-on-one phone interviews. An inductive analysis was completed. Data saturation was reached with our sample, and we completed member checks and multiple analyst triangulation. Our results showed having a passion for the role and job, having an acceptance of the athletics lifestyle, having a support network, and having family and work integration were the major reasons our participants have been able to persist as an athletic trainer within the NCAA Division I setting.

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Hannah Cooper and Stacy Winter

Disordered eating is a psychological ailment that befalls many athletes and can persist into retirement. Links have been established between disordered eating and societal and sport-specific pressures; however, little research has focused on the perspective of retired athletes in a time-based sport. The purpose of the current research was to explore the conceptualization of disordered eating in relation to swimming participation, how retirement affects eating patterns, and ways to mitigate disordered eating. Following IPA methodological guidelines, a homogeneous sample of retired swimmers (N = 6) was chosen for semistructured, participant-driven interviews determined by scores on a disordered-eating questionnaire. Three superordinate themes were revealed: (1) pressures unique to swimming, (2) transition to eating pattern awareness, and (3) maintaining ideal eating patterns in retirement. The results revealed a combination of novel findings and expansion of previous data on disordered eating. Suggestions for applications of current findings and for future research are also discussed.

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills

more traditional methods of analysis (e.g., COP displacement) might miss ( Ihlen, Skjæret, & Vereijken, 2013 ; Norris, Marsh, Smith, Kohut, & Miller, 2005 ). Fractal processes contain long range correlations in the time series and can show either persistence (i.e., a positive correlation in time or a

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Michael A. Riley, Suvobrata Mitra, Thomas A. Stoffregen and Michael T. Turvey

We examined the potentially exploratory and performatory nature of postural sway. Subjects stood upright or leaned forward, with eyes open or closed. Postural data were analyzed using a statistical mechanics analysis of center of pressure (COP) trajectories, which examines the fractional Brownian nature of postural sway. Positive correlations (persistence) over short time scales are hypothesized to reflect exploratory behavior, and negative correlations (antipersistence) over long time scales are hypothesized to reflect performatory behavior. When leaning, subjects exhibited decreased levels of persistence (decreased correlation) and increased levels of antipersistence (increased correlation) than when upright. With eyes open, subjects showed decreased levels of persistence and decreased levels of antipersistence than with eyes closed. Effects of vision were more pronounced when leaning. Evidence for direction-specific exploration (based upon root mean square variability analysis) was considered. Task-specificity and trade-offs between biomechanical and task constraints in models of postural control were discussed.

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Jeremy R. Hawkins, Kayla E. Gonzalez and Kristin J. Heumann

Clinical Scenario:

Concussions are a prevalent topic in medicine. Concussion symptoms include headaches, dizziness, nausea, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairments, the persistence of which is referred to as postconcussion syndrome. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proposed and evaluated as an additional treatment of these symptoms. HBOT is an innovative approach that has been considered by many but has received both criticism and acceptance.

Clinical Question:

Is HBOT an effective means of reducing symptoms for individuals suffering from postconcussion syndrome (persistence of symptoms for >3 mo)?

Summary of Search:

The literature was searched for studies that were relevant to the clinical question. Literature provided 5 level 1 studies that were relevant enough to be considered.

Clinical Bottom Line:

Based on the research that is available, the authors conclude that there is more evidence to refute the use of HBOT for postconcussion syndrome than to support it.

Strength of Recommendation:

Four studies disprove the use of HBOT; 1 study supported the use of HBOT. These 5 studies are the same level of evidence (level 1) and provide significant findings in their studies. The strength of this recommendation is a B according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Ashley Goodman and William A. Pitney

Context:

Social support, autonomy, and job satisfaction are among the factors influencing female athletic trainers' decisions to remain in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (NCAA D-I) setting, but the male perspective has not been documented.

Objective:

Identify factors that affect male athletic trainers' decisions to remain in the NCAA D-I setting.

Design:

Qualitative study. Participants: 11 male athletictrainers who averaged 6 ± 6 years of NCAA D-I clinical experience, 66 ± 10 working hours per week during the traditional sport season, and 34 ± 5 years of age.

Data collection and analysis:

In-depth, semistructured interviews. Two researchers followed the steps of a grounded theory study and analyzed data independently.

Results:

Two main persistence themes emerged from the data: (1) D-I atmosphere and (2) workplace environment.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that male athletic trainers remain in the NCAA D-I setting because of satisfaction with their employment, which includes a competitive atmosphere, strong coworker relationships, and support from their supervisors.

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Ruth L. Chimenti, Sara A. Scholtes and Linda R. Van Dillen

Many risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development or persistence of low back pain (LBP). However, the juxtaposition of both high and low levels of physical activity being associated with LBP reflects the complexity of the relationship between a risk factor and LBP. Moreover, not everyone with an identified risk factor, such as a movement pattern of increased lumbopelvic rotation, has LBP.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in activity level and movement patterns between people with and people without chronic or recurrent LBP who participate in rotation-related sports.

Design Case:

Case-control study.

Setting:

University laboratory environment.

Participants:

52 people with chronic or recurrent LBP and 25 people without LBP who all play a rotation-related sport.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants completed self-report measures including the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire on rotation-related sports. A 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to collect movement-pattern variables during 2 lower-limb-movement tests.

Results:

Compared with people without LBP, people with LBP reported a greater difference between the sport subscore and an average work and leisure composite subscore on the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire (F = 6.55, P = .01). There were no differences between groups in either rotation-related-sport participation or movement-pattern variables demonstrated during 2 lower-limb-movement tests (P > .05 for all comparisons).

Conclusions:

People with and people without LBP who regularly play a rotation-related sport differed in the amount and nature of activity participation but not in movement-pattern variables. An imbalance between level of activity during sport and daily functions may contribute to the development or persistence of LBP in people who play a rotation-related sport.