Achievement choices emanate from a variety of individual and contextual factors, including the influence of significant others and gender-role socialization. An understanding of these factors is important for promoting participation in sport, particularly for women engaged in masculine-typed sports. Five members of the USA women’s wrestling team were interviewed regarding the personal and contextual variables that influenced their choice to wrestle. Questions focused on the athletes’ expectations of success and value for wrestling, their identity as a wrestler, the role of significant others, and the cultural context of wrestling for women. Results revealed that each woman had a strong wrestling identity, had high perceptions of ability, and placed high value on achieving in wrestling. Parents and coaches were the main providers of wrestling opportunities; however, negative interpretations of their involvement from a variety of significant others outnumbered positive influences. While the individual factors confirm sources that would lead a person to select and persist at an achievement task, societal messages did not support these choices. Discussion centers on issues of resistance, persistence, and applied messages.
Moira E. Stuart and Diane E. Whaley
Alan L. Smith
sport persistence ( García-Calvo et al., 2014 ; Jõesaar, Hein, & Hagger, 2011 , 2012 ; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006 ). Moreover, greater ego-involving peer climate perceptions have been shown to associate with greater perceptions of negative sport behaviors and athlete burnout perceptions ( Davies
Delia D. Douglas and Katherine M. Jamieson
Researchers have illustrated how this post–Civil Rights period is marked by significant changes to the organization and implementation of systems of racial stratification and expressions of racialized hostility. Consonant with the persistence of racial inequality is the notion that “race” is no longer relevant. In this context, we consider print media accounts of Nancy Lopez’s participation in 14 tournaments between June and October 2002. The Lopez Farewell Tour signaled the end of her 26-year career on the Ladies Professional Golf Association tour. We suggest that representations of Lopez are linked to new strategies of racialization that strengthen white racial power and privilege. We argue that the popularity of Nancy Lopez, a light-skinned Latina, was not simply evidence of a move towards color-blindness; rather, it was illustrative of the ways in which discourses of whiteness are communicated through their articulation with formations of gender, social class, and heterosexuality.
Sharon R. Guthrie, T. Michelle Magyar, Stephanie Eggert and Craig Kain
Researchers have extensively documented gender differences in negotiation perceptions and performance which, in turn, may contribute to the persistence of salary and workplace inequity between women and men. The purpose of this study was to determine if these differences existed among a sample of 228 athletes (women n = 151 and men n = 77) who had competed in sport at high school, competitive club, college, or through professional levels for 15 years. More specifically, gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation were investigated in order to determine whether the three factors associated with the Babcock, Gelfand, Small, and Stayn (2006) Propensity to Initiate Negotiation Model (i.e., recognition of opportunity, sense of entitlement, and apprehension) explained and mediated such differences. Propensity to initiate negotiation (PIN) was operationally defined as self-reported responses to a series of hypothetical negotiation scenarios, as well as recent and anticipated future negotiation experiences. Females reported significantly more negotiation apprehension than males; they did not differ, however, in their recognition of opportunities and sense of entitlement associated with negotiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.
the work of Chen et al. ( 2002 ), the two studies examined the relationship between SES and sport participation at different stages of childhood to test three competing theoretical models: 1) the persistence model , which proposes that the effect of SES on sport participation remains constant
R. Scott Kretchmar
The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.
Leticia Oseguera, Dan Merson, C. Keith Harrison and Sue Rankin
(d) persistence. These relationships between perceived campus environment and student outcomes held for both Black and White students, with the exception of the relationship with social experiences. Basically, the perception of a campus climate as racist negatively influenced the academic experiences
Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin
development of more self-determined regulations, which underpin task persistence and psychological well-being ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ; Sheldon, Elliot, Kim, & Kasser, 2001 ). Autonomy is characterized by feelings of choice and being able to choose one’s own behavior. Relatedness refers to feeling connectedness
Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir
persistence ( Boiché, Chalabaev, et al., 2014 ). The current study advances our knowledge by more specifically examining the relationship of pro-feminine beliefs with sport commitment and sport enjoyment ( Brown et al., 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Pro-feminine beliefs may contribute to continued
George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon
opportunities and the ability to advance. When such expectations are low, people will likely follow other options. In an examination of student persistence, for example, Kahn and Nauta ( 2001 ) found that college students were more likely to continue in their degree path when they believed doing so would allow