Achievement choices emanate from a variety of individual and contextual factors, including the influence of significant others and gender-role socialization. An understanding of these factors is important for promoting participation in sport, particularly for women engaged in masculine-typed sports. Five members of the USA women’s wrestling team were interviewed regarding the personal and contextual variables that influenced their choice to wrestle. Questions focused on the athletes’ expectations of success and value for wrestling, their identity as a wrestler, the role of significant others, and the cultural context of wrestling for women. Results revealed that each woman had a strong wrestling identity, had high perceptions of ability, and placed high value on achieving in wrestling. Parents and coaches were the main providers of wrestling opportunities; however, negative interpretations of their involvement from a variety of significant others outnumbered positive influences. While the individual factors confirm sources that would lead a person to select and persist at an achievement task, societal messages did not support these choices. Discussion centers on issues of resistance, persistence, and applied messages.
Moira E. Stuart and Diane E. Whaley
Sharon R. Guthrie, T. Michelle Magyar, Stephanie Eggert and Craig Kain
Researchers have extensively documented gender differences in negotiation perceptions and performance which, in turn, may contribute to the persistence of salary and workplace inequity between women and men. The purpose of this study was to determine if these differences existed among a sample of 228 athletes (women n = 151 and men n = 77) who had competed in sport at high school, competitive club, college, or through professional levels for 15 years. More specifically, gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation were investigated in order to determine whether the three factors associated with the Babcock, Gelfand, Small, and Stayn (2006) Propensity to Initiate Negotiation Model (i.e., recognition of opportunity, sense of entitlement, and apprehension) explained and mediated such differences. Propensity to initiate negotiation (PIN) was operationally defined as self-reported responses to a series of hypothetical negotiation scenarios, as well as recent and anticipated future negotiation experiences. Females reported significantly more negotiation apprehension than males; they did not differ, however, in their recognition of opportunities and sense of entitlement associated with negotiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Alan L. Smith
sport persistence ( García-Calvo et al., 2014 ; Jõesaar, Hein, & Hagger, 2011 , 2012 ; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006 ). Moreover, greater ego-involving peer climate perceptions have been shown to associate with greater perceptions of negative sport behaviors and athlete burnout perceptions ( Davies
Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin
development of more self-determined regulations, which underpin task persistence and psychological well-being ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ; Sheldon, Elliot, Kim, & Kasser, 2001 ). Autonomy is characterized by feelings of choice and being able to choose one’s own behavior. Relatedness refers to feeling connectedness
George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon
opportunities and the ability to advance. When such expectations are low, people will likely follow other options. In an examination of student persistence, for example, Kahn and Nauta ( 2001 ) found that college students were more likely to continue in their degree path when they believed doing so would allow
Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir
persistence ( Boiché, Chalabaev, et al., 2014 ). The current study advances our knowledge by more specifically examining the relationship of pro-feminine beliefs with sport commitment and sport enjoyment ( Brown et al., 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Pro-feminine beliefs may contribute to continued
Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire
was that the persistence they showed in their roles as officials was meant to send a message that women can be involved as soccer referees and can be “good referees,” and that more women are needed among referee ranks. For instance, a few of the women had become referees precisely because of a lack of
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling
, many athletes acknowledged they still felt lingering effects from their experiences of emotional abuse. Adrienne explained, “that’s what stays with you after sport, all of the psychological issues you get from the sport, it just follows you into real life.” Athletes also discussed the persistence of
urgent to get ‘under the skin’ to address the persistence of the problem of a lack of women in sport coaching and leadership (e.g., Doherty, Fink, Inglis, & Pastore, 2010 ; Fink, Pastore, & Riemer, 2001 ; Greenhill, Auld, Cuskelly, & Hooper, 2009 ; Norman et al., 2018 ; Shaw & Penney, 2003 ; Shaw
R. Scott Kretchmar
The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.