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Alan L. Smith

sport persistence ( García-Calvo et al., 2014 ; Jõesaar, Hein, & Hagger, 2011 , 2012 ; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006 ). Moreover, greater ego-involving peer climate perceptions have been shown to associate with greater perceptions of negative sport behaviors and athlete burnout perceptions ( Davies

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R. Scott Kretchmar

The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.

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JoEllen M. Sefton and Kenneth A. Games

Colleges and universities increasingly face pressure to take the lead in solving complex problems. Developing and sustaining interdisciplinary research centers that collaborate with community partners can be an effective method of approaching complex challenges. We use the example of interdisciplinary research centers designed to specifically work with tactical athlete organizations (e.g., military, police, fire) as one example of how research centers can be developed and produce important outcomes. A 10-step process is outlined for finding partners, executing projects, and growing research centers which are mutually beneficial to the partner organization and the academic institution. With vision, commitment, and persistence, interdisciplinary research centers can solve complex problems and have meaningful impacts in the community.

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Catherine D. Ennis

As typically taught, sport-based, multiactivity approaches to physical education provide students with few opportunities to increase their skill, fitness, or understanding. Alternative curriculum models, such as Sport Education, Teaching Games for Understanding, and Fitness for Life, represent a second generation of models that build on strong statements of democratic, student-centered practice in physical education. In the What Goes Around section of the paper, I discuss the U.S. perspective on the origins of alternative physical education curriculum models introduced in the early and mid-20th century as a response to sport and exercise programs of the times. Today, with the help of physical educators, scholars are conducting research to test new curricular alternatives or prototypes to provide evidence-based support for these models. Yet, the multiactivity, sport-based curriculum continues to dominate in most U.S. physical education classes. I discuss reasons for this dogged persistence and propose reforms to disrupt this pervasive pattern in the future.

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Ang Chen

project is the best hands-on training for doctoral students. That was a time when all data had to be punched into a roll of mile-long narrow paper tape by hand for the mainframe computer for analysis. The volume of work was tremendous. Her persistence and work ethic exemplified how a productive researcher

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Thelma S. Horn

affect, sport commitment, and persistence. In contrast, higher frequencies of punishment-oriented feedback based on evaluation, as well as high use of nonreinforcement and ignoring player mistakes, have a negative effect on the same psychosocial outcome variables and may also be linked to higher levels

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Mark S. Dyreson

that optimized their capacities as persistence hunters ( Bramble & Lieberman, 2004 ). They had abundant leisure time to enjoy their locomotor cultures, given that the anthropological consensus contends that they worked only about 20 hours a week at wresting a living from their Pleistocene environments

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James A. Carson, John K. Petrella, Vanessa Yingling, Mallory R. Marshall, Jenny O and Jennifer J. Sherwood

.B. , Denetclaw , W.F. , Gutiérrez , C.G. , . . .  Okpodu , C.M. ( 2016 ). Improving underrepresented minority student persistence in STEM . CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15 ( 3 ), es5 . PubMed ID: 30183571 10.1187/cbe.16-01-0038 Hernandez , P.R. , Schultz , P. , Estrada , M. , Woodcock , A

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Thelma S. Horn

value of an incremental or growth mind-set in terms of its correlation with many positive outcomes (e.g., motivational levels, persistence, interest, adaptive responses to failure and setbacks) across a range of achievement contexts (e.g., academics, sport, health) and at most developmental time points

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

 = .5 represents an uncorrelated signal, equivalent to white noise (Figure  6 ; left column). A scaling exponent of .5 < α ≤ 1.0 indicates long-range persistence, whereby small or large fluctuations are likely to be followed by small or large fluctuations, respectively. In contrast, a scaling exponent