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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries. Content analysis of each standard and/or scope of practice was undertaken to extract nutrition statements. Extracted statements were matched with nutrition components of the ICREPs standards to result in a score based on the number of aligned ICREPs knowledge and skills criteria. Ten countries, with 16 organizations, were identified as being involved in the development of national education standards, occupational standards, or scopes of practice for personal trainers. The educational and occupational standards varied widely among countries and had minimal alignment with the ICREPs standards. As such, the expected role of personal trainers in providing nutrition care appeared to differ between countries. Further work is required to support personal trainers to develop a level of knowledge and skills that enables the provision of safe, consistent, and effective nutrition care.

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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers’ perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. All personal trainers reported to provide nutrition care and reported that nutrition care was an important component of their role. Despite this, many were unaware or uncertain of the scope of practice for personal trainers. Some personal trainers reported a gap between the nutrition knowledge they received in their formal education, and the knowledge they needed to optimally support their clients to adopt healthy dietary behaviors. Overall, the personal training context is likely to be conducive to providing nutrition care. Despite concerns about competence personal trainers have not modified their nutrition care practices. To ensure personal trainers provide nutrition care in a safe and effective manner, greater enforcement of the scope of practice is required as well as clear nutrition competencies or standards to be developed during training.

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Mark R. McKean, Gary Slater, Florin Oprescu and Brendan J. Burkett

Australia has approximately 26,000 registered exercise professionals (REP), in comparison with 3,379 accredited practicing dietitians (APD). The REP workforce has the potential to reach more than 10% of the Australian population but there is limited data on their educational background and professional behaviors with regards to nutritional counseling of clients. The purpose of this research was to determine if REPs are working within their scope of practice and if their qualifications align with their practice, specifically as it relates to nutrition advice. Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, a self-administered online survey of REPs was conducted over 5 months. REPs were recruited through electronic and social media using a snowballing technique. The study focused on education, nutrition advice, and sources of information. A total of 286 respondents completed the survey, including 13 with tertiary dietetic qualifications i.e., APDs. The nationally recognized industry Certificate III/IV in Fitness was the most common qualification. The majority of REPs responding (88%) were working outside of their professional scope of practice, offering individual nutrition advice to clients across fitness and medical issues. This was despite 40% of REPs undertaking no further training in nutrition since graduating, and primarily basing advice on use of readily accessible sources of nutrition information. It is recommended the nutrition advice provided to REPs during training be limited to general nonmedical nutrition information in accordance with nationally endorsed evidence based guidelines and that issues pertaining to scope of practice be addressed with onward referral to other health professionals be advocated.

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Anna-Liisa Ojala and Holly Thorpe

Action sports (e.g., snowboarding, skateboarding, windsurfing, BMX) have traditionally celebrated antiauthoritarian, do-it-yourself and anticompetition cultural values. With the institutionalization and commercialization of action sports over the past two decades, and the introduction of mega-sports events such as the X Games, and the inclusion of some action sports into the Olympic Games (i.e., snowboarding, freestyle skiing, BMX), action sport athletes are increasingly working with coaches, psychologists, agents, managers and personal trainers to improve their performances. In this Insights paper we consider coaching in action sports via the case of Finnish professional snowboarders’ attitudes to coaches. Drawing upon conversations with elite freestyle snowboarders we briefly present insights into their perceptions of the various positions of coaches in professional snowboarding before we offer suggestions built upon a Problem-based learning approach for coaches interested in working with action sport athletes.

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Robert Weinberg

, focus of attention instructions, self-efficacy promotion, and effort regulation. Coaches and personal trainers should therefore encourage participants to prepare for difficult situations and setbacks with goal-directed self-talk that focuses on planning and problem solving (i.e., what they would do if

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Dimitrios Challoumas and Andreas Artemiou

optimization programs. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the personal trainer Maria Aristeidou for her invaluable assistance in data collection and the coaches and players of the teams Nea Salamina and AE Karava for their participation. The results of this study do not constitute endorsement of the

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

. All training sessions were performed under the individual supervision of a certified personal trainer from Power Train. Training sessions continued at a rate of two to three per week (depending on training phase) for 16 weeks. The RT intervention consisted of two separate workout complexes that were

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Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos and Michal Mahat-Shamir

confronted with the severity and the consequences of their sport-related injury, which they had refused to acknowledge otherwise. They basically tell you that you cannot [compete] anymore. That’s it, it’s over for you. No Olympic games. . . . My personal trainer had told me that he believes in me but that

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

further evaluate content relevance, the authors sent a Qualtrics questionnaire to a panel of seven content experts (two professors in exercise science or special education, three ACSM-certified personal trainers, one graduate student, and one parent of an adult with ID). The panel was asked to answer two

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Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert

a workout buddy for a disabled person. Ironically, when Cindy and Kate provided qualified personal trainers to work one on one with their children, facility policies restricted their entry because they were not employed by the fitness centers. Ableism prevented community program supports, yet when