The contemporary United States fitness industry, in conjunction with the medical endorsement of exercise and the marketing of lifestyle consumption, has made possible the emergence and rapid growth of health and fitness services. This paper brings together the sociological fields of work, consumption, and physical culture, suggesting how the structure and organization of personal training impacts upon how fitness is sold. Drawing from interviews with personal trainers, the occupation is discussed as a combination of frontline service work, emotional labor, and flexible work strategies, resulting in a variety of job roles: the representation of the fitness club, the brokering of clients’ consumer relationships with the fitness industry, the motivation of clients through service relationships, and the entrepreneurial cultivation of a client base and semi-professional authority.
Jennifer Smith Maguire
George B. Cunningham, Melanie L. Sartore and Brian P. McCullough
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job applicant sexual orientation on subsequent evaluations and hiring recommendations. Data were gathered from 106 students (48 men, 57 women) who participated in a 2 (applicant sexual orientation: heterosexual, sexual minority) × 2 (rater gender: female, male) × 2 (applicant gender: female, male) experiment related to the hiring of a personal trainer for a fitness organization. Analysis of variance indicated that sexual minority job applicants received poorer evaluations than did heterosexuals. These effects were moderated by the rater gender, as men provided harsher ratings of sexual minorities than did women. Finally, applicant ratings were reliably related to hiring recommendations. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature, limitations, and future directions.
Melanie L. Sartore and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of weight discrimination on perceived attributions, person–job fit, and hiring recommendations. Three experiments were undertaken to investigate these issues with people applying for positions in fitness organizations (i.e., aerobics instructor and personal trainer). In all three studies qualified people who were overweight, relative to their qualified and sometimes unqualified thin counterparts, were perceived to have less desirable attributes (e.g., lazy), were thought to be a poorer fit for the position, and were less likely to receive a hiring recommendation. These relationships were influenced by applicant expertise and applicant sex in some cases. Implications for the fitness industry are discussed.
exercise, healthy eating, and tobacco cessation, which in turns boosts employee productivity ( Baicker, Cutler, & Song, 2010 ). For the purposes of this paper, fitness programs may include fitness and sport classes, consultations, personal trainer services, and biometric screening equipment, all of which
Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn
ethnographic work at two CrossFit gyms in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although my research formally began in early 2015, I was contracted as an independent personal trainer and Olympic weightlifting instructor at “CrossFit Achieve” for over two years prior to the start of this ethnography. My familiarity with
James A. Carson, John K. Petrella, Vanessa Yingling, Mallory R. Marshall, Jenny O and Jennifer J. Sherwood
) in order to make appropriate professional decisions regarding how to effectively work with a given individual or group. Moreover, kinesiology professionals must understand how to work effectively in various types of groups, be it dyad groups (e.g., personal trainer and client), small- to moderate
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro
personal trainers . Journal of Sport Management, 24 ( 4 ), 400 – 415 . doi: 10.1123/jsm.24.4.400 Depken , C.A. , & Ford , J.M. ( 2006 ). Customer-based discrimination against Major League Baseball players: Additional evidence from All-star ballots . The Journal of Socio-Economics, 35 ( 6
Mark Urtel, Sara F. Michaliszyn and Craig Stiemsma
students’ base skills and knowledge. Second, the students work with campus employees under direct faculty supervision in a relatively controlled setting as personal trainers to not only refine their knowledge, skills, and competencies but to do so at a level deemed acceptable for the upcoming external
://appliedsportpsych.org/about/aasp-fellows/ , accessed February 15, 2019). Many of the advertised positions are not for SPPs (e.g., personal trainer, exercise specialist, performance coaches). It also provides perspective to consider the number of individuals employed in some example professions in which graduates from kinesiology/exercise science
industry involving a wide range of business opportunities including municipalities building large athletic complexes to host youth tournaments, social media companies providing national rankings of young players, personal trainers and coaches offering their paid services for private coaching sessions, and