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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

Nearly 25 years ago, Jeremy Morris ( 1994 ) declared physical activity to be the “best buy in public health.” Morris, the epidemiologist credited with publishing the first modern scientific evidence of the cardiovascular health benefits of physical activity ( Morris, Heady, Raffle, Roberts, & Parks

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Thomas W. Rowland

A growing body of evidence implicates the existence of a functional subconscious governor in the brain, which controls level of habitual physical activity. Such a biologic control, acting in a classic feedback loop mechanism, might serve to contribute to the defense of energy balance. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the pliability of biologic control of activity and the extent that it might dictate daily energy expenditure. A consideration of this concept bears importance for those seeking an understanding of the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of obesity as well as the link between exercise and health in the general population.

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

Physical inactivity is a recognized independent risk factor for mortality and chronic morbidity in adults ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2018 ). Specific to the U.S. context, physical inactivity is estimated on average to cause 11% of premature mortality and 7% of disease burden

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Thomas L. McKenzie

The importance of physical activity to the growth and development of children and adolescents is clear ( 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee ), and schools have been identified as key venues to increase physical activity in both global ( World Health Organization, 2018 ) and U

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Meridith Griffin, Brett Smith, P. David Howe and Cassandra Phoenix

In this paper we present a scoping review of literature on aging, visual impairment, and physical activity. Our objectives are to: (a) explore the available literature on aging, physical activity, and sight loss; (b) describe how participation in physical activity by older adults with visual impairment is understood by researchers; and, (c) identify benefits, barriers, and facilitators of physical activity participation as reported by older adults with age-related sight loss. Over 2,000 sources were reviewed, with 30 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Findings were organized into four thematic categories, namely: (a) participation rates; (b) health inequalities; (c) barriers to physical activity participation; and, (d) benefits of physical activity participation. Through this scoping review process, extant knowledge was synthesized and gaps in the literature were critically assessed. To address these gaps, several avenues for future research are outlined and described, alongside a consideration of the implications of the scoping review findings for both policy and practice.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

Ambulation (stepping) is an essential component of many activities of daily living (e.g., household chores, active transport), with walking being the most commonly reported physical activity choice across the globe ( Hulteen et al., 2017 ). As such, step counting has become a standard measurement

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Alan L. Smith

Defined as any bodily movement generated by skeletal muscles that produces energy expenditure ( Caspersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985 ), physical activity is inherently constrained to the individual mover. Yet, physical activity is a behavior that is socially and culturally embedded. Full

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The rationale for the intervention is flawed (i.e., to decrease sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury). A person with SCI, by definition, will always be sedentary. — Anonymous journal reviewer People living with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at the lowest end of the physical-activity

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

This paper provides an overview of the growing U.S. Latino population, the obesity disparity experienced by this population, and the role of parents and physical activity in promoting a healthy weight status in Latino preschool children. The main portion of this paper reviews seven intervention

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Wendy J. Brown and Toby Pavey

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) commenced in Australia in 1996 when researchers recruited approximately 40,000 women in three birth cohorts: 1973–1978, 1946–1951, and 1921–1926. Since then participants have completed surveys on a wide range of health issues, at approximately three-year intervals. This overview describes changes in physical activity (PA) over time in the mid-age and older ALSWH cohorts, and summarizes the findings of studies published to date on the determinants of PA, and its associated health outcomes in Australian women. The ALSWH data show a significant increase in PA during mid-age, and a rapid decline in activity levels when women are in their 80s. The study has demonstrated the importance of life stages and key life events as determinants of activity, the additional benefits of vigorous activity for mid-age women, and the health benefits of ‘only walking’ for older women. ALSWH researchers have also drawn attention to the benefits of activity in terms of a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as overall vitality and well-being. The data indicate that maintaining a high level of PA throughout mid and older age will not only reduce the risk of premature death, but also significantly extend the number of years of healthy life.