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Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr

differences in physical demand would exist according to the characteristics of a typical ride, with consideration of factors such as terrain type, trail grooming, vehicle style, and riding technique. Methods Phase 1—Definition of a Typical PA Exposure To define the “typical” ride, a survey was distributed

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Daniel Gould, Susan Jackson and Laura Finch

This investigation examined stress and sources of stress experienced by U.S. national champion figure skaters. Seventeen national champions, who held their titles between 1985 and 1990, were interviewed about the stress they experienced as national champions and were asked to identify specific sources of stress. Qualitative methodology was used to inductively analyze the interview transcripts and revealed that 71% of the skaters experienced more stress after winning their title than before doing so. Stress source dimensions were also identified and included: relationship issues, expectations and pressure to perform, psychological demands on skater resources, physical demands on skater resources, environmental demands on skater resources, life direction concerns, and a number of individual specific uncategorizable sources. In general, these findings parallel the previous elite figure skaters stress source research of Scanlan, Stein, and Ravizza (1991), although there were several points of divergence relative to the type of stressors experienced by this sample of national champion athletes.

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Justin A. Kraft, William D. Russell, Nathan Clark, Jessica Helm and Amanda Jackson


The ability of interactive video games (IVGs) to individualize physical demands influences their viability as a physical activity option. This study examined the influence of experience level on activity levels and affect resulting from playing a martial arts IVG.


Twenty participants completed 3 15-minute trials: (1) walking, (2) IVG with no previous experience (INEXP), and (3) IVG activity after 2 hours of practice (EXP) during which heart rate (HR), step counts, metabolic equivalents of task (METs), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE, and affect (positive/negative affect, enjoyment) were measured.


Mean HR was lower during walking (107 ± 18 bpm) than during INEXP (131 ± 25 bpm) and EXP (120 ± 20 bpm). Peak HR and session RPE were lower for walking than for INEXP and EXP. No difference in mean HR was observed between IVG conditions, but peak HR and session RPE were lower for EXP than for INEXP. Walking resulted in greater postactivity reduction of negative affect; however, the IVG conditions were perceived as more enjoyable.


Although the current IVG provided a greater exercise stimulus than walking, results suggest that user movements become more efficient with greater IVG experience and that exercise outcomes may decrease as a result.

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

?), physical demand (how physically demanding was the task?), effort (how hard did you have to work to accomplish your level of performance?), and frustration (how insecure, discouraged, irritated, stressed, and annoyed were you?). Participants were asked to score each of the items on a scale divided into 20

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Liam D. Harper, Adam Field, Liam D. Corr and Robert J. Naughton

extensively, due to its worldwide ubiquity and popularity, is association football (herein called football) or soccer. The health benefits of participating in recreational football are extensive (see Bangsbo, Hansen, Dvorak, and Krustrup ( 2015 ) for a review); however, in older adults, the physical demands

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

recruited trained athletes and often fail to use tasks that replicate the technical and physical demands placed on athletes in sport. Consequently, there is a lack of direct application of these research findings to the elite-sporting context. Future researchers must use more generalizable sport tasks to

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum

). Simultaneously, psychological states such as attention, effort perceptions, and affect are activated to enable efficient physiological and physical adaptation to the physical demands ( Balagué, Hristovski, García, Aguirre, et al., 2015 ; Ekkekakis, Lind, & Vazou, 2010 ; Hutchinson & Tenenbaum, 2007 ; Meir et

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Andrew Evans, Robert Morris, Jamie Barker, Tom Johnson, Zoe Brenan and Ben Warner

injured • Sacrifice (e.g., moving home) • Extra responsibility (e.g., being full-time) • Being self-disciplined • Arriving late to an academy • Gaining acceptance • Integrating with new people • Adapting to new culture • Overcoming fear • Increased physical demands • Learning to survive and thrive • Being

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams

participation rate and performance achievements of Masters athletes who participated at the eighth European Veterans Indoor Athletics Championships in 2011 of all competitors. Based on documented disparities in physical demands ( Hunter & Stevens, 2013 ; Kundert, Di Gangi, Nikolaidis, & Knechtle, 2018 ) and

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Joshua Nimmins, Ben Strafford and Joseph Stone

cope with the physical demands (regular ball mass). Future research should address how task constraints affect skill development of adult participants. However, modifications that simplify performance must be representative of the constraints innate to the skill as this preserves perception